A frail and stooped Castro, 86, also appeared in public earlier this month to vote for the National Assembly and chat with Cuban reporters.
The man referred to as the "historic leader of the revolution" has maintained a public presence through his writings, meetings with important visitors and rare public appearances, but he is no longer seen as wielding real power.
Castro has given up all his official positions except his deputy spot.
The 612 deputies, who were elected in an uncontested vote, are expected on Sunday to name a new Council of State with Raul Castro as president, and a new parliament president to replace a retiring Ricardo Alarcon, who served for 20 years.
The meeting is closed to the foreign press.