"After months of not competing, tonight was a baby step forward! I missed this so much! Thank you Colombia for such a warm welcome. #imback," tweeted the Russian superstar on Sunday.
Sharapova lost the match 6-1, 1-6, 12-10 to the Serb.
The right shoulder injury forced the 26-year-old world number four to miss the US Open as well as the season-ending WTA Championships.
Sharapova is due to make her competitive return at the Brisbane International from December 30.