The girl's plight came to light on Sunday after she could not speak despite being treated at a local hospital in Vizianaragam and was referred to a government hospital in the port city of Visakhapatnam.
A doctor attending on her said, "Her vocal cord is badly damaged. We are trying our best, but not sure whether she will recover her voice."
The victim, Rupali (name changed), is a first year student of the Gayatri Junior College at Gotlam in Vizianagram, about 520 km northeast of Hyderabad, and had joined the institute last month.
The college management, which sent Rupali twice to a private hospital for treatment after she complained of ragging, called her father and asked him to take her home after she did not recover her voice.
At home, Rupali told her father in a note, "Two seniors caught hold of my legs and others tried to smother me."
Rupali's father has lodged a complaint at Bondapalle police station. He said the college management had tried to persuade him not to lodge a complaint.
"We have registered a case and are conducting investigations," said sub-inspector Swamy Naidu of Bondapalle police station.