The company claimed that five of Samsung's products, including its global hit Galaxy S-series smartphones and tablet computer Galaxy Tab 7.7, infringed its patents.
"This lawsuit has been filed both to enforce LG Display's intellectual property rights and promote fair competition," it said in a statement.
LG Display said it would seek an unspecified amount of damages and a permanent injunction against the sale of infringing devices.
There was no immediate comment from Samsung, which in July accused LG Display employees of stealing its OLED technology.
Samsung and LG, respectively the world's largest and second largest flat-screen TV makers, each claim their technology offers more vivid images and wider viewing angles.
The suit comes as Samsung is embroiled in a long-running patent battle with Apple, with the two rivals accusing each other of stealing smartphone design and technology.