The 35-year-old targeted over 50 people in the entertainment industry, including Mila Kunis. He pleaded guilty to charges including wiretapping and unauthorised access to a computer.
Chaney leaked photos of Aguilera after sending an email from the account of her stylist, Simone Harouche, asking for scantily clad images.
The singer said ahead of his sentencing, "That feeling of security can never be given back and there is no compensation that can restore the feeling one has from such a large invasion of privacy."US District Judge S James Otero sentenced Chaney in LA following a video statement from Johansson.
Aguilera, Kunis and Johansson agreed to have their identities made public to raise awareness about online intrusion.
Chaney had also targeted two women he knew. He was originally arrested in October 2011.