Kapoor, who has had a difficult time steering the company in a cut-throat market, will stay on the boards Bharti Global and Indus Towers, a telecom infrastructure company in which Bharti has a substantial stake.
The company in a statement that Kapoor will continue in his current role until February 28 and will be available to assist on key matters until March 31 ensuring a smooth transition.
Vittal will report to Sunil Mittal, chairman and managing director of Bharti Airtel.
"Key focus areas for Gopal would be enhancing market share and margins along with growth of alternate revenue streams including 3G, Data, Airtel Money and value-added services," the statement said.
Mittal said he expected Vittal's strong experience in consumer marketing to help Bharti Airtel, which has a subscriber base of 190 million and a market share of 31%.