Amazon.com Inc will launch its business loan programme for small sellers later this year in eight more countries including China, where credit is becoming a key factor in competing for new vendors and grabbing market share.
Until now, the e-retailer has offered the service only in the United States and Japan. Amazon Lending, founded in 2012, now plans to offer short-term working capital loans in other countries where it operates a third-party, seller-run marketplace business, head of Amazon Marketplace Peter Faricy, told Reuters.
The countries are Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom.
The service is on an invite-only basis and is not open to all sellers on Amazon's platform.
Other large retailers including eBay Inc's PayPal and Alibaba Group Holdings, which run third-party marketplaces, are also turning to credit to boost their vendor base.
Some lending industry officials who help lenders assess credit risk say these retailers are taking on risky loans because they don't know the shape of the credit market in which the sellers are operating.
Small businesses have high failure rates, especially in China and India, added William Black, a former US banking regulator and professor of Economics and Law at the University of Missouri.
Amazon said it can safely offer loans based on internal data and because it takes loan payments out of the sales proceeds, it pays sellers.
PayPal spokesperson Josh Criscoe said eBay merchants who use PayPal are eligible for the working capital loans and credit is offered to only those customers that have a strong PayPal sales history.
PayPal has provided more than $500 million in capital since September 2013, with an average loan disbursement of $2 million per day.
A spokesperson for Alibaba's financial services arm Ant Financial, which offers these loans, said credit is offered to Taobao, Tmall merchants and other small business owners who meet certain conditions. The company also offers such loans to customers in some countries like the United States and Britain.
Since 2011, Ant Financial's Ant Micro Loan programme has issued 400 billion yuan ($64.42 billion) worth of loans, and the non-performing loan ratio is 1.5%, the spokesperson added.
Amazon offers three-to-six-month loans of $1,000 to $600,000 to help merchants buy inventory. It makes money on interest and takes a cut of all sales on its marketplace, which now account for about 40% of total Amazon site sales.
Amazon said it has offered hundreds of millions of dollars in loans since 2012, with more than half of its sellers opting for a repeat loan. The company declined to provide specific figures and also did not say how much it plans to lend this year.
Amazon's Faricy said the company has become better at understanding the inflection points in a small or medium business where capital can make a difference.
"We know a lot about our sellers' business and invite only those who we think are in the best position to take capital and grow," he said.
Faricy said Amazon uses internal algorithms to choose sellers based on the frequency with which they run out of stock, the popularity of their products and their inventory cycles.
In China, where Alibaba lends to small businesses, offering such loans is more of a business requirement, analysts said.
"Amazon has very little share in China and they haven't been able to break out of that, so this is a very important necessary step for them to be able to grow," said Gil Luria, analyst with Wedbush Securities in Los Angeles.
In other countries including India, where there is a scramble to expand the online shopping market, small business loans could offer a distinct competitive advantage, Luria said.
Online lending accounts for about 3% of the roughly $1 trillion of outstanding personal and small business loans in the United States.
The default rate for small businesses with credit under a $1 million stood at 1% in 2014 but is seen rising to 1.6% in 2015, as new lenders with varying ability to assess risk increase lending, according to small business credit ratings provider PayNet.
Retailers like Amazon do not have data from sellers about some markets in which they operate, and relying on internal seller company data is not enough, said William Phelan, president of PayNet.
Amazon said it has the information it requires to make "great loan decisions" because of close relationships with sellers and that it mitigates risk by taking loan payments from proceeds due to sellers for their sales.
Sellers interviewed by Reuters and writing on Amazon forums cited interest rates on Amazon loans ranging from 6% to 14%, in line with loans from banks and business credit cards.
Stephan Aarstol, chief executive of Tower Paddle Boards, an Amazon seller, said he has taken four loans from the company starting in March 2014 because of the speed and simplicity of the process. It took him five days to get his first loan.
"The problem for a small business owner is not the interest rate, it's the availability of credit ... I can't grow fast enough," he said.