Australia captain Ricky Ponting won the toss and elected to bat against England in the first one-day international at the Rose Bowl in Southampton on Tuesday.
Australia gave a debut to 19-year-old fast bowler Josh Hazlewood, who in the process became the country's youngest one-day international.
England beat Australia in the world Twenty20 final in Barbados last month, a tournament both England captain Andrew Strauss and Australia counterpart Ponting missed as they no longer play in that format.
Australia won a seven-match one-day series against England in England 6-1 last year and then beat them by nine wickets in the semi-finals on the way to winning the Champions Trophy tournament in South Africa.
This was the first of a five-match series.
England: Andrew Strauss (capt), Craig Kieswetter (wkt), Kevin Pietersen, Paul Collingwood, Eoin Morgan, Michael Yardy, Luke Wright, Tim Bresnan, Graeme Swann, Stuart Broad, James Anderson.
Australia: Ricky Ponting (capt), Shane Watson, Tim Paine (wkt), Michael Clarke, Michael Hussey, Cameron White, James Hopes, Ryan Harris, Nathan Hauritz, Josh Hazlewood, Doug Bollinger.