The survey of 5,252 people — 3,155 men and 2,097 women — in Delhi showed that every 10th adult had some form of chronic kidney disease. One-third did not even know they had a kidney ailment.
The study, conducted by researchers at Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC) and reported in BioMed Nephrology (February 2009), showed 31.2 per cent had hypertension and 7.3 per cent had diabetes.
Protein in urine — a marker of kidney disease — was found in 3 per cent of the adult population.
For the two-year long study, funded by the University Grants Commission, each person underwent a blood pressure measurement by two physicians at an interval of 10 minutes; a spot urinary protein was assessed using dipsticks. Five ml of fasting venous blood sample was taken for assessing biochemical variables.
Sedentary lifestyles, bad eating habits and obesity, say researchers, are all adding to the high prevalence of chronic kidney diseases in the Capital.
“A simple screening—which includes blood pressure measurements, blood sugar tests and urine protein test—that costs as little as Rs 100 can identify those at high risk of developing failure,” said Dr N.P. Singh, professor, Dept of Medicine, MAMC.
“The bitter reality is that both the public and private resources combined are not enough to treat the 1.5 lakh new renal failure cases reported every year. The disease has to be detected at its inception,” he said.
A basic test can determine the levels of creatanine in the blood. As the levels of serum creatanine go up, kidney functioning goes down. Factors like age, weight and lifestyle also important determinants of a healthy functioning kidney.