In this section, we will deal with political position of various nations as well as issues that have arisen due to the threat of climate change.
Ever since it has become clear that the global temperature is showing an upward trend every country has started articulating its position based on two facts – What is her responsibility? What is the price she has to pay? The world today is divided into four groups –
1. United States of America, European Union and other developed nations
2. Emerging economies – China, India, Brazil and South Africa
3. G-77 nations – Originally a group of 130 nations but now represented by Africa and other developing countries.
4. AOSIS – Alliance of Small Island States. These island states are the most vulnerable as they would be submerged when the sea rises.
These four groups have different views on tackling climate change and bearing cost and responsibility. While the developing countries and emerging economies insist that the developed countries that have been polluting the world since Industrial Revolution should bear the entire cost of clean up, the developed countries insist that emerging economies like China and India should also chip in as they too have become huge polluters.
Emission rates, right to development, rate of decrease in emission and scrutiny of emission reduction efforts are issues that have stalled quick progress in mitigating efforts. After Copenhagen Summit (December 7-18, 2009) this is where nations stand vis-à-vis climate change efforts.