At least 42 cows were killed when a goods train ran over them between Rupra Road and Kandel Road railway stations, 40 kilometres from Bhawanipatna on Monday.
The incident occurred when some cattle traders were clandestinely transporting a herd of over 100 cows to slaughter houses of Andhra Pradesh, police said.
The goods train ploughed through the cattle as it was crossing an unmanned railway gate, it said.
The accident occurred in the wee hours of Monday.
On Sunday last, about 25 cows were killed after the Howrah-bound Faluknama Express train ran over a herd at Laxmannath in Balasore district close to Orissa-West Bengal border.