In the last one decade, over one-fifth of the monitoring wells in Madhya Pradesh have recorded fall in the groundwater level, while about 79% of the wells have shown rise in the water level.
According to the latest Central Ground Water Board report (2014), the fluctuation of water level during January 2012, when compared with the average water levels of the past decade (decadal means 2004-2014) shows there has been both decline and rise of water level in different parts of the state. Given the fact MP is the second largest state and geographically varied, there is variation in the groundwater fluctuations in different parts of MP
The fluctuation of water level during January 2014, when compared with the decadal mean (2004-2013) shows that about 21% wells have registered a decline in water level, while about 79% of analysed wells have shown a rise in water level, of which 45% of the wells fall in the range of 0 to 2 metre. About 14% wells have shown a rise in water level in the range of more than 4 metres.
The depth to water level during January 2014 in MP varied from 20 cm to over 48 metre below ground level (bgl). In general the depth to water level ranges up to 10m bgl in most parts of the state. About 7% monitoring wells showed water level in 0-2m bgl range, while about 39% of monitoring wells showed water level in 2-5 metre bgl range. Depth to water level ranging between 5-10 metre bgl was observed in 39% wells and about 15% wells showed water level ranging more than 10 m bgl located mostly in northern most parts of the state in the districts of Bhind.
Comparing water level data of January 2014 to the same month last year shows there has been a rise in water level in about 77% of the wells and fall in about 22% of the wells. In case of 1% wells, there has been no change. Over 48% wells have shown a rise in the range of 0-2 m range, 19% of the wells have shown rise in the range of 2-4 m and 10% have shown rise over 4 metres. About 17% wells showed fall in the range of 0-2 metre. Maximum rise in water level has been recorded as 18.17 m and maximum fall in water level has been recorded as 10.75 m. According to water resources department chief engineer Rajiv Sukalikar, the fact that 79% of the observation wells have shown rise in the ground water level in last one decade is because of the varied terrain and geological features in the state.
Rajiv Sukalikar, chief engineer, Water Resources Department said the fact that 79% of the observation wells in MP have shown rise in the ground water level, while 21% recorded fall in last one decade is because of the varied terrain and geological features in the state. "Good rise in some parts of MP is because of the rainfall pattern and seepage patters. The increase in irrigated land over the years has also contributed to the groundwater seepage. Apart from this, more than 80% of the geographical area of the state is underlain by the hard rock formations and seepage friendly soils. The rain pattern, especially consistent rainfall during monsoons, replenishes water table increasing the groundwater level. The heavy showers, however in some parts, leads to wastage of water as it increase the surface runoff and doesn’t allow time for seepage."