AICC leaders criticised the government for being "anti-farmer" during the discussion on agriculture at the conference of chief ministers at Nainital.
Digvijay Singh and Satyavrat Chaturvedi were among those who said that the Centre needed to change its "mindset" on the problems faced by farmers.
Finance Minister P Chidambaram, however, explained that agriculture was a state subject.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also said that he would "look into" the question of agricultural credit and indebtedness that the AICC leaders and chief ministers had raised during the conclave called to discuss agrarian crisis and threats to internal security from terrorism, Naxal violence and communalism.
"Each farmer has to, in the final analysis, find agriculture remunerative," he said.
Manmohan also urged the chief ministers to do their bit. They could, for instance, overhaul the state seed corporations, set up core groups on agriculture to review district level performance and ensure that panchayats play a role in the agricultural transformation being desired.
On internal security - the other agenda of the conclave - he emphasised the need to improve the understanding on the problems of minorities whose education and employment levels were much lower than state averages.