On paper, UP might be low on domestic violence against women compared to other states, but when it comes to the ground reality, the state is ahead of others.
A BHU study aimed at finding direct correlation between domestic violence and infant mortality has observed higher percentage of domestic violence in Tamil Nadu and Bihar than Uttar Pradesh.
Further the same study, however, when observed in terms of effect of domestic violence against women on infant mortality establishes that states, including Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are 19, 32 and 48 pc significantly lower than UP on this critical count.
Observation during the same study conducted by a team of Centre for Inter Disciplinary Mathematical Studies (Dept of Statistics, BHU) led by Prof KK Singh has also established that females experiencing domestic violence have 29 pc higher risk of infant mortality as compared to females not exposed to domestic violence.
It has attempted to study effect of domestic violence experienced by females on Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), using data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-II) conducted during 1998-99.
Survey contains information on a national representative sample of 90,303 married females aged between 15 and 49 years and provides information on fertility, family planning practice, infant-child mortality, among other issues.
Owing to the problem of recall lapse data on birth/mortality in distant past may be of poor quality, the BHU scientists have studied effect of recent experience of domestic violence on number of infant mortality that occurred to the births in last five years preceding survey date.
BHU study has analysed data from two important southern states (Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) and two crucial North Indian states (UP and Bihar).
Analysis is based on 11, 335 females who have delivered 16,560 births during last five years preceeding the NFHS-II, out of which 1205 have died before completing first year of life and out of total females considered in the study 80 pc are from rural background.
Study reveals that in UP (which has a distribution of 42.21 females out of the total sample size), only 23.52 pc females have experienced DV, followed by Bihar with 29.84 pc, Andhra Pradesh 23.84 and Tamil Nadu with a maximum of 37.72 pc.
But when it comes to break up on Infant Mortality, UP which has lowest percentage of women experiencing DV, has highest percentage of Infant Mortality at 11.81 pc, followed by Bihar 9.40 pc, Andhra Pradesh 7.97 and Tamil Nadu at 6.19 pc.
A further comparatives break up establishes that effect of DV in UP per se IMR is 19, 32 and 48 pc more than Bihar, AP and Tamil Nadu.
The study suggests that DV level is high among females of rural areas than urban areas and maximum percentage of DV experiencing females falls in 40-plus age group, Prof Singh told the HT on Monday.
Also the prevalence of domestic violence decreases as standard of living, educational and social status increases.
The study further shows that females from rural background are more prone to Infant Mortality (10.46 pc in rural and 6.96 pc in urban).
An interesting finding of the study is that females belonging to families having four or less members experienced 14.56 pc infant mortality, whereas those whose family size is bigger experienced only 8.66 pc infant mortality (40 pc lower than small family size females).
IM risk is 23 pc lower for females belonging to family with moderate social status, whereas its 59 pc lower in females from higher social status.
Also autonomy of female is crucial role in IM, with moderate and high autonomy female being at 20 and 26 lower than low autonomy females, Singh added.