A new research has found that fruit flies use cues from natural skylight to navigate, suggesting that many, if not all, insects have that capability.
“If you go out in a field, lie on your back and look up at the sky, that’s pretty much what an insect sees. Insects have been looking up at this view forever,” said Michael Dickinson, a University of Washington biology professor and the senior author of the study.
The researchers including Peter Weir, a doctoral student at the California Institute of Technology and the lead author, noted that insects such as monarch butterflies and locusts maintain a constant heading while migrating thousands of miles across continents, while bees and ants hunting for food successfully find their way hundreds of feet back to the nest without a problem.
That has led scientists to believe that the animals must possess a compass of sorts.
To assess how insects orient themselves, Weir and Dickinson examined the behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster, a species commonly referred to as a fruit fly, in outdoor lighting conditions in a specially designed “arena” atop a building tall enough to be higher than treetops and other visual landmarks.
The researchers used a light-cured glue to attach the insects to a metal pin, which was then placed within a magnetic field that allowed the flies to move and rotate naturally but held them in place. Digital cameras tracked flight headings.
During the hour before and the hour after sunset, the headings of flies relative to the position of the arena were recorded for 12 minutes. The arena was rotated 90 degrees every three minutes, and when natural light was not altered by optical filters some of the flies compensated for the rotations and maintained a consistent heading.
When the arena was covered with a circularly polarizing filter, eliminating natural linear polarization light patterns, the flies did not shift their heading significantly in response to arena rotations.
The results indicate Drosophila has the ability to coordinate eye and brain functions for rudimentary navigation using light polarization patterns, the researchers concluded.
The flies are able to hold a straighter course under normal polarization patterns than they can when those patterns are shifted. The next step in the research is to try to determine why the flies select a particular heading.
Demonstrating that fruit flies can navigate using cues from natural skylight makes it easier to use genetics research to better understand the complex capability and exactly how it is implemented in the brain.
The findings were published in the journal Current Biology.