Even though India is increasingly acknowledged for its scientific and technological power, the country has just 110 scientists per one million population and spends a mere $3.53 per capita on research and development in science and technology.
According to information volunteered by Minister of State for Science and Technology Kapil Sibal, India stands last in a list of 14 countries in spending on research and development in science. China, which stands one notch higher, spends $12.15 per capita and has 633 scientists per million - about six times as many as India's.
The country with the highest spending is Sweden - spending $1,104.20 per capita of its income on research and development. It has 5,171 scientists per one million people. Next is Japan, which spends $976.58 and has 5,085 scientists per one million.
The US stands third, spending $962.15 per capita and with 4,526 scientists per million. It is followed by Denmark ($869.68 and 4,822 scientists), Germany ($613.94 and 3,222 scientists) and Austria ($564.59 and 2,346 scientists).
While France spends $552.08 per capita and has 3,134 scientists per million, Singapore spends $475.52 per capita and has 4,352 scientists per million.
Apart from India, none of the 14 countries spend on research and development in single digit figures. And barring China and India, all the others have scientists per million in four digits.
This is the situation when the expenditure on research and development by the science and technology ministry has been doubled from Rs 120.22 billion in the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) to Rs 252.43 billion in the 10th Five-Year Plan (2002-07).