The central government has declared November 26 as the Constitution Day and lined up a host of activities on Thursday to pay tribute to Dr BR Ambedkar, one of the key framers of the Constitution.
The Centre and the states have gone all out to celebrate the first Constitution Day to mark the occasion when the Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949. The events will be a part of the year-long nationwide celebrations to mark the 125th birth anniversary of Ambedkar, the Dalit icon.
The government has asked officials to read out the preamble of the Constitution, decided to illuminate Parliament House Complex and call a special session of Parliament for this purpose.
Here are the major amendments to the Constitution since it came into force on January 26, 1950:
1951: The First Amendment placed reasonable restrictions on free speech, and created the Ninth Schedule that protects laws placed in it from judicial scrutiny.
1956: The Seventh Amendment paved the way for reorganisation of states along linguistics lines.
1960: The Eight Amendment extended the period of reservation of seats for the SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970. Since then, it is being extended every decade.
1961: The 12th Amendment led to incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.
1971: The 26th Amendments led to abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic.
1975: The 35th and 36th Amendments made Sikkim part of the Indian Union.
1975: The 39th Amendment negated the judgment of Allahabad High Court invalidating PM Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. It placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of PM.
1976: 42nd Amendment passed during Emergency curtailed fundamental rights, imposed a set of fundamental duties and added the words ‘secular’ and ‘socialist’ to the Preamble.
1978: The 43rd and 44th Amendments restored civil liberties post-Emergency and removed the Right to Property from the Fundamental Rights.
1985: The 52nd Amendment added 10th schedule to the Constitution i.e. anti defection law. It provides for disqualification of legislators in case of defection from one party to other.
1989: 61st Amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
1992: 73rd and 74th Amendments provided for direct election to all seats in Panchayats and urban local bodies.
1994: 76th Amendment enabled continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution.
2002: The 86th Amendment provides for Right to Education until the age of fourteen and early childhood care until the age of six.
2006: The 93rd Amendment enables provision of reservation (27%) for OBCs in government as well as private educational institutions.
2014: The 99th Amendment paved the way for appointment and transfer in higher judiciary by creating National Judicial Appointment Commission. It was struck down by the SC in 2015.
2015: The 100th Amendment enabled exchange of certain enclaves with Bangladesh.
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