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Naxals: Thin red line gets thicker

india Updated: Apr 13, 2012 01:02 IST
Hindustan Times
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Odisha
ORIGIN: The Naxal movement gained momentum from 1968 onwards with unarmed groups raising issues such as rights over bamboo and forest produce, and mining
BLOODY ERA: 2004-12
KEY ISSUES: Livelihood of tribals
STATUS CHECK: More than 20 of 30 districts are affected by Maoist violence

“Develop-ment cannot be achieved through violence… I appeal to the extremists to shun violence and join the mainstream.” Naveen Patnaik CM (in August 2011)

Jharkhand
ORIGIN: Naxalites made their presence felt in 1969 (then united Bihar)
BLOODY ERA: 2005-09
KEY ISSUES: Illegal mining and forcible displacement of tribals from their land
STATUS CHECK: Death of politburo member Kishenji and anti-Naxal operations have put the rebels on the backfoot in all but 10 of the 24 districts

“Naxalism is a serious issue and there should not be any politics in it. It requires participation of all people to find a solution.” Arjun Munda, CM (in December 2011)

Chhattisgarh
ORIGIN: Kondapalli Seetharamaiah formed the PWG in 1980 and brought Dandakaranya — comprising parts of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Andhra — under its control
BLOODY ERA: 2000-12
KEY ISSUES: Exploitation of tribals, lack of development
STATUS CHECK: 15 of 27 districts affected

“Naxals are on the backfoot. How-ever, we cannot rule out their presence. It is a national issue and needs to be dealt with accordingly.”Raman Singh, CM (in 2012)

Madhya pradesh

ORIGIN: It started in the late 1980s, when Chhattisgarh was still a part of Madhya Pradesh
BLOODY ERA: 1994-95 and 2004-05
KEY ISSUES: Corruption, lack of development
STATUS CHECK: Naxalites occasionally target development works in Balaghat district

“Those talking of bullet cannot be termed revolutionaries. Their aim is to capture power in Delhi.” Shivraj S Chouhan, CM (in November 2010)

Bihar
ORIGIN: A movement against the oppression of low caste tillers by upper caste landlords launched in 1967
BLOODY ERA: 1980s
KEY ISSUES: Exploitation of tribals
STATUS CHECK: Maoists have spread their activities to at least 30 of the 38 districts

“Naxal elements are a part of our society. Enfor-cement action alone leads to wider alienation, making heroes out of leaders of the extremist organisations.” Nitish Kumar, CM (in July 2010)

Andhra Pradesh
ORIGIN: The movement started in the early 1970s. Peasants supported by Naxals revolted against landlords, moneylenders
BLOODY ERA: 1980-2000
KEY ISSUES: Exploitation of tribals and rural landless
STATUS CHECK: The state has been free from Maoist violence since 2006. The Maoists are now trying to regain their foothold

“We should not remain complacent. Naxalites, who are on the run, might try to re-enter the state.” Kiran Kumar Reddy, CM (in December 2011)

Maharashtra
ORIGIN: The Naxalites
infiltrated Gadchiroli, one of Maharashtra’s most backward districts, from Andhra Pradesh in the late 1980s
BLOODY ERA: 1990-2010
KEY ISSUES: Exploitation of tribal bamboo and tendu leaf collectors by contractors
STATUS CHECK: The movement is active in Gadchiroli

“We will do everything to stop the menace. Police are studying the Andhra strategy, which has been effective.” Prithviraj Chavan, CM (in April 2012)

West Bengal
ORIGIN: The movement had its origin in Naxalbari village where a section of the CPI (Marxist) initiated a violent uprising in 1967. The second phase started in the late 1990s under Kishenji
BLOODY ERA: 1967-72, 2008-11
KEY ISSUES: Exploitation of the poor by landlords, industrialists and traders
STATUS CHECK: No major attack since February 2010

“We want Maoists to return to mainstream. We still believe development is a key issue in Jangalmahal.” Mamata Banerjee, CM (in Aug 2011)

Karnataka
ORIGIN: The Naxalite movement started when a group of rebels from West Bengal entered the
districts adjoining Andhra Pradesh in the mid-1990s
BLOODY ERA: 2003-05
KEY ISSUES: Lack of basic amenities
STATUS CHECK: Naxalites are confined to just four of 30 districts

“Action will be taken against Naxals. Steps will also be taken to provide basic amenities in affected areas.” DV Sadananda Gowda, CM (in March 2012)