By Ed Stoddard
A new biography of Nelson Mandela explores his iconic global appeal and traces his conciliatory political style to a patrician birth and childhood shielded from the indignities of South African racism.
Mandela: A Critical Life, by political analyst Tom Lodge, may raise a few eyebrows for its human portrayal and occasional gentle criticism of a man whom many regard as a secular saint.
However, as humility is one of Mandela's endearing traits, it seems doubtful that the man himself, who turns 88 on July 18, would have any objections to the book.
"Both at court and at school, Mandela absorbed principles of etiquette and chivalry that remained important precepts through his public life," writes Lodge, professor of peace and conflict studies at Limerick University in Ireland and a long-time commentator on South African affairs.
"...The absence in early life of intimidating or humiliating encounters with white people is significant, and, to an extent, distinguishes his childhood from many other black South African childhoods," he says.
The attention that Lodge devotes to Mandela's childhood in his subsequent development sets it apart from other works which have tended to focus on his adult activism and prison years.
Born into a clan of royal counsellors to a paramount chief, Mandela grew up in a world of rigid social customs which helps to explain his respect for authority and good manners.
Methodist boarding school may have instilled the discipline that would see him rise early to exercise all his life.
Lodge writes that, at the elite Methodist institution of Healdtown that he attended, "...relationships between black and white staff were at least formally collegial."
Such collegiality would extend into Mandela's part-time law studies at Johannesburg's University of the Witwatersrand, where he came into contact with white radicals in the 1940s.
Mandela did dally with African nationalism and was initially suspicious of the communists he eventually embraced as part of a united, multi-racial struggle against apartheid.
|Nelson Mandela is one of the more popular and respected icons of the world today|
His belief in multi-racialism in the 1950s -- at a time when the National Party, which came to power in 1948, was tightening apartheid laws -- would become a major theme of his career with the African National Congress (ANC).
"ANC leaders, including Mandela, during the 1950s did believe in...racial conciliation. Helping to sustain such beliefs were the occasional courtesies and even empathy that they encountered in the most unexpected quarters," Lodge writes.
These included a 1952 incident Mandela recalled when he ran put of petrol and managed to get some from a "friendly farmer" who was a relative of hard-line Prime Minister Hans Strydom.
Lodge plots and attempts to explain Mandela's rise to superstar status on the world stage.
It is a status that he enjoys even in a busy retirement which has seen his activism extend to AIDS awareness and his legacy celebrated in a comic book series.
Even during his days of early activism in Johannesburg, women were drawn to his warmth and striking good looks.
"Standing at six foot four inches he was, in the context of the 1940s, quite literally a giant...Charm was another crucial attribute," Lodge writes.
His global legend would be cemented by his 27 years of imprisonment from August, 1962 -- decades that coincided with the culmination of America's civil rights movement, decolonisation across Africa and other waves of social protest.
They were also the decades that witnessed the rise of television and celebrity stardom. Through it all Mandela remained youthful in the public consciousness through his pre-jailing activism and pictures.
"The imprisonment and isolation from public view kept the narrative and images that accompanied it pristine, invested with the glamour of martyrdom but reinforced by the apocalyptic possibilities of a second coming," Lodge writes.
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