Formula One team Renault face a charge of possessing "confidential information" belonging to their rivals McLaren.
The team have been accused of receiving information that included "the layout and critical dimensions of the McLaren F1 car", according to the sport's governing body.
Renault chiefs have been summoned to attend a hearing of the FIA World Motor Sport Council in Monaco on December 6, when they could be hit with heavy penalties.
McLaren were fined 47.5 million pound and kicked out of the constructors' championship after being found guilty on a similar charge in September.
A statement on the FIA website read: "The team representatives have been called to answer a charge that between September 2006 and October 2007, in breach of article 151c of the International Sporting Code, the Renault F1 Team had unauthorised possession of documents and confidential information belonging to Vodafone McLaren Mercedes.
"Including, but not limited to the layout and critical dimensions of the McLaren F1 car, together with details of the McLaren fuelling system, gear assembly, oil cooling system, hydraulic control system and a novel suspension component used by the 2006 and 2007 McLaren F1 cars."
Renault, who won the drivers' and constructors' titles in 2005 and 2006, insist they have nothing to hide.
A spokesman told BBC Sport: "Ever since the matter was brought to our attention, we have acted with complete transparency towards McLaren and the FIA and we will continue to do so."
A McLaren spokeswoman said the team would not be commenting on the matter.