A Sukhoi-30 crashed at Laokhowa in Nagaon district of Assam on Tuesday and both pilots ejected safely.
The fighter aircraft, flying from Tezpur's Salanibari Air Force station on a routine sortie, lost contact with the radar at the air force station at around 12.30pm and crashed thereafter, a defence spokesman said.
The aircraft had developed a technical problem and the pilots were forced to bail out, he said.
An inquiry has been ordered into the crash, he added.
Last year, a Su-30 had crashed at the Lohegaon Airbase near Pune.
In another incident, two pilots inexplicably ejected while taxiing before take-off in Jodhpur.
In 2008, an airman conducting ground tests on the Su-30 was killed in Bareilly, when the ejection seat fired from the aircraft.
India has a contract for 272 Sukhoi Su-30 jets from Russia, most of which are being made at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited under a license from a Russian firm.