The two men hanged alongside Saddam on Saturday were Barzan Ibrahim Hassan al-Tikriti, one of Saddam's three half-brothers and a former director of the feared Mukhabarat intelligence service, and Awad Ahmed al-Bandar al-Sadun, former chief judge of the revolutionary court and deputy head of Saddam's office.
Like Saddam, they were sentenced to death for their roles in the massacre of 148 Iraqi Shias from the village of Dujail, north of Baghdad, after a failed attempt on the former dictator's life in 1982.
Barzan Ibrahim Hassan Al-Tikriti: Detained on April 16, 2003, he was number 52 on the wanted list issued by US commanders after their March 2003 invasion, and five of clubs in a pack of playing cards issued to troops.
Hot-tempered and secretive, Barzan had a series of rows with other members of Saddam's Tikriti clan, notably the president's elder son, Uday, but family ties meant he was always welcomed back.
A 1988 dispute erupted over Barzan's opposition to the marriage of one of Saddam's daughters to a rival member of the Tikriti clan, Hussein Kamel Hassan, friends said.
And in 2003, Barzan opposed Saddam's younger son, Qusay, succeeding his father as president.
But despite the disagreements, Barzan remained one of the president's most trusted aides. He managed Saddam's personal fortune until 1995 and is also believed to have coordinated covert purchases in Europe for the regime's prized weapons programmes.
Being Iraqi ambassador to UN in Geneva from 1988 to 1998 gave him the perfect cover, and he is also believed to have set up arrangements to circumvent the UN sanctions clamped on Iraq after Saddam's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.