Musicians worldwide are paying tribute to Les Paul, the music icon whose solid-body electric guitar paved the way for rock 'n' roll.
The guitar virtuoso who died on Thursday at age 94 performed with some of early pop's biggest names and produced a slew of hits, many with wife Mary Ford. But it was his inventive streak that made him universally revered by guitar gods as their original ancestor and earned his induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as one of the most important forces in popular music.
"He actually taught himself to play guitar in order to demonstrate his electronic theories," said Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards. "All of us owe an unimaginable debt to his work and his talent."
Paul died in suburban White Plains of complications from pneumonia. He was remembered as a tireless tinkerer whose quest for a particular sound led him to create the first solid-body electric guitar. His invention became the standard instrument for legends like Pete Townshend and Jimmy Page.
"The name Les Paul is iconic and is known by aspiring and virtuoso guitar players worldwide," said Kiss front man Paul Stanley. "That guitar is the cornerstone of a lot of great music that has been made in the last 50 years."
Paul also developed technology that would become hallmarks of rock and pop recordings, from multitrack recording that allowed for multiple layers of "overdubs" to guitar reverb and other sound effects.
"He was a futurist, and unlike some futurists who write about it and predict things, he was a guy who actually did things," said Henry Juskiewicz, chairman and CEO of Gibson Guitar, which mass produced Paul's original invention.
Private services are being planned for New York and Waukesha, Wisconsin, Paul's home town, according to an obituary posted by the Iridium Jazz Club in New York City, where until recently Paul had played every week. Public memorial tributes also are being planned. A musician since childhood, Paul experimented with guitar amplification for years before coming up in 1941 with what he called "The Log," a piece of wood strung with steel strings. He later put the wooden wings onto the body to give it a traditional guitar shape.
The use of electric guitar gained popularity in the mid-to-late 1940s.
Leo Fender's Broadcaster was the first mass-produced solid body electric on the market in the late 1940s.
Gibson solicited Paul to create a prototype for a guitar and began making the Les Paul guitar in 1952. The Who's Townshend, Steve Howe of Yes, jazz great Al DiMeola and Led Zeppelin's Page all made the Gibson Les Paul their trademark six-string.
Born Lester William Polfuss on June 9, 1915, he began his career as a musician, billing himself as Red Hot Red or Rhubarb Red. He toured with the popular Chicago band Rube Tronson and His Texas Cowboys and led the house band on WJJD radio in Chicago. In the mid-1930s he joined Fred Waring's Pennsylvanians and soon moved to New York to form the Les Paul Trio, with Jim Atkins and bassist Ernie Newton.
His first records were released in 1944 on Decca Records. Later, with Ford, his wife from 1949 to 1962, he earned 36 gold records for hits including "Vaya Con Dios" and "How High the Moon," which both hit No. 1.
He had met Ford, then known as Colleen Summers, in the 1940s while working as a studio musician in Los Angeles. For seven years in the 1950s, Paul and Ford broadcast a TV show from their home in Mahwah, New Jersey. (Ford died in 1977, 15 years after they divorced).
In 1948, Paul and Ford were seriously injured in a car crash. Among other injuries, Paul's right elbow was crushed and doctors set it at an angle so he could continue to play guitar, Robb Lawrence, a former concert tech for Paul, says in the 2008 book "The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy."
Paul had made his first attempt at audio amplification at age 13. Unhappy with the amount of volume produced by his acoustic guitar, he tried placing a telephone receiver under the strings. Although this worked to some extent, only two strings were amplified and the volume level was still too low.
By placing a phonograph needle in the guitar, all six strings were amplified, which proved to be much louder. Paul was playing a working prototype of the electric guitar in 1929. His work on recording techniques began in the years after World War II, when Bing Crosby gave him a tape recorder. Drawing on his earlier experimentation with his homemade recording machine, Paul added an additional playback head to the recorder. The result was a delayed effect that became known as tape echo.
Tape echo gave the recording a more "live" feel and enabled the user to simulate different playing environments.
Paul's next idea was to stack together eight mono tape machines and send their outputs to one piece of tape, stacking the recording heads on top of one another. The resulting machine served as the forerunner to today's multitrack recorders. Many of his songs with Ford used overdubbing techniques that Paul had helped develop.
Paul's use of multitrack recording was unique. Before he did it, most recordings were made on a single tape. By recording each element separately, from the vocals to instrumentation on different tracks, they could be mixed and layered, adding to the richness in sound.
In 1954, Paul commissioned the first eight-track tape recorder, later known as "Sel-Sync," in which a recording head could simultaneously record a new track and play back previous ones. In the late 1960s, Paul retired from music to concentrate on his inventions. His interest in country music was rekindled in the mid-'70s, and he teamed with Chet Atkins for two albums. The duo won a Grammy for best country instrumental performance of 1976 for their "Chester and Lester" album.
In 2005, he released the Grammy-winning "Les Paul & Friends: American Made, World Played," his first album of new material since those 1970s recordings and his first official rock CD. Among those playing with him: Peter Frampton, Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton and Richie Sambora.
"They're not only my friends, but they're great players," Paul said. "I never stop being amazed by all the different ways of playing the guitar and making it deliver a message."
Paul was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2005.