Despite the farmers of the Malwa region are busy to irrigating their wheat fields nowadays, however, a large number of farmers do not know that how excess water irrigation can damage crop yield.
Agriculture experts of the Punjab agriculture department, say that to harvest a bumper crop of wheat, the scientific use of available irrigation water is essential, excess irrigation causes wastage of water and is harmful for the soil and also reduces the uptake efficiency of nutrients resulted into decreases the yield of wheat crop .
According to agriculture department, it is necessary to maintain soil moisture favourable for satisfactory growth and development of the plants. If irrigations are not given at required time then there is drastic reduction in yield. Therefore, it is always necessary to give water to wheat crop as and when needed. Sometime farmers irrigate the crop as a routine without giving due consideration to soil type, water depth and stage of crop, which causes a drastic reduction in yield.
Dr Jaswinder Singh Brar, agriculture development officer (ADO) while motivating and educating the farmers on Sunday, for importance of time of irrigation to wheat crop at village Rauke Kalan of block Nihal singh wala in dirstict Moga, said that the first irrigation should be relatively light and given 21-25 days after sowing to early sown wheat crop and 26-30 days after sowing to crop sown later because of a crown root initiation stage of wheat crop.
"Crown root initiation stage is very critical stage to crop growth and yield. If first irrigation misses or gives late then there may be a drastic reduction in grain yield. The wheat plant has two types of roots, the seminal (seed) roots and roots that initiate after germination, the crown roots. Wheat plants initiates their crown roots after 16 days from sowing of the seed and are usually first seen when the fourth leaf emerges and tiller starts," said Brar.
"Only the crown root system goes on to become the major supplier of water and nutrients to the wheat plant. Maximum reduction would occur if the irrigation at the critical growth stage is missed. For efficient use of irrigation water farmers are advised to make 8 plots per acre in heavy textured soil and 16 plots per acre in light textured soils. In sandy loam soil 6-8 irrigations may be required whereas in heavy clay soil 3-4 irrigations are considered to be sufficient," he added.
Former agriculture minister jathedar Tota Singh said the department of the agriculture educates and motivates the farmers for adoption of improved technology along with improved agronomic strategies, which will help in saving underground water as well as enhancing the productivity of the crops. Farmer should adopt new technologies as recommended by the agriculture experts.