Formed in 1998, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties led by the BJP. The alliance formed its first government at the Centre in 1998 under the leadership of BJP stalwart Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It lasted just a year. The Pokhran nuclear tests and the Kargil war are two highlights of the first NDA government. After elections in 1999, the NDA returned to power and Vajpayee was sworn in as the PM once again. It completed its five-year tenure this time, but lost power to a Congress-led alliance in 2004. In its second term, the NDA was criticised for the Gujarat riots that killed more than 1,000, mostly Muslims. In 2014, the NDA registered a landslide victory under the leadership of Narendra Modi, who promised economic growth and corruption-free governance. In the third term, the government has faced criticism of opposition parties and eminent writers and filmmakers over what they said “growing intolerance” and “religious tensions”.