A Malaysian court ruled on Monday that a Christian newspaper may not use the word "Allah" to refer to God, a landmark decision on an issue that has fanned religious tensions and raised questions over minority rights in the mainly Muslim country.
The unanimous decision by three Muslim judges in Malaysia's appeals court overturned a 2009 ruling by a lower court that allowed the Malay language version of the newspaper, The Herald, to use the word Allah - as many Christians in Malaysia say has been the case for centuries.
"The usage of the word Allah is not an integral part of the faith in Christianity," chief judge Mohamed Apandi Ali said in the ruling. "The usage of the word will cause confusion in the community."
The decision coincides with heightened ethnic and religious tensions in Malaysia after a polarising May election, in which the long-ruling coalition was deserted by urban voters that included a large section of minority ethnic Chinese.
A Muslim demonstrator stands outside Malaysia's Court of Appeal in Putrajaya. (Reuters photo)
In recent months, Prime Minister Najib Razak has sought to consolidate his support among majority ethnic Malays, who are Muslim by law, and secure the backing of traditionalists ahead of a crucial ruling party assembly this month.
His new government - dominated by his Malay-based United Malays National Organisation - has toughened security laws and introduced steps to boost a decades-old affirmative action policy for ethnic Malays, reversing liberal reforms aimed at appealing to a broader section of multi-ethnic Malaysia.
In its case, the government argued that the word Allah is specific to Muslims and that the then-home minister's decision in 2008 to deny the newspaper permission to print it was justified on the basis of public order.
Muslim protestors recite prayers during a demonstration against a Malaysian Catholic newspaper using the word Allah at the court of appeal in Putrajaya.(AFP photo)
Lawyers for the Catholic paper had argued that the word Allah predates Islam and had been used extensively by Malay-speaking Christians in Malaysia's part of Borneo island for centuries. They say they will appeal against Monday's decision to Malaysia's highest court.
Christians in Indonesia and much of the Arab world continue to use the word without opposition from Islamic authorities. Churches in the Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak have said they will continue to use the word regardless of the ruling.
The paper won a judicial review of the home minister's decision in 2009, triggering an appeal from the federal government.
Ethnic Malays make up 60% of Malaysia's 28 million people, with Chinese accounting for more than a quarter and ethnic Indians also forming a substantial minority. Christians account for around 9%.
A Muslim woman recites a prayer during a demonstration outside Malaysia's Court of Appeal in Putrajaya. (Reuters photo)