ruling Labor party last month, almost three years to the day since she toppled Kevin Rudd - now reinstated as PM - in a shock coup.
Her time in office was marred by slights on her gender and sometimes violently sexist commentary, including from members of the conservative opposition, prompting a fiery speech about misogyny last year that went viral and earned her global accolades.
The galvanising speech on the floor of parliament saw her become a torch-bearer for women around the world.
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Welsh-born Gillard opened up for the first time at length about the sexism she faced in what would ultimately be her final interview as prime minister, telling author Anne Summers you "wouldn't be human if you had no reaction to it".
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Picture of the menu with a dish named after Gillard in sexist light. Credit:@AshGhebranious/Twitter
Australia's first female leader said conservative leader Tony Abbott had tipped her over the edge, portraying himself as "some convert, or someone with a real understanding about what it's like to face the world as a woman and to feel the weight of that?"
"I just wasn't prepared to suffer through that in anything that looked like silence," Gillard said in the June 10 interview published late on Friday, adding that she had been energised by the response to the speech.
"The reaction to the misogyny speech did give me that sense that there are moments when I can talk about it that will have that resonance in other women," she said.
"However they vote or whatever they think of me, they will actually say, 'Yep, I know exactly what she's talking about'."
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Gillard revealed that she had also spoken to former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton about the travails of female leadership.
"She said to me that she never really felt that issue about gender when she was a senator. It's when she put herself forward for executive office that she felt it very acutely, and so she talked about the crack she put in the glass ceiling," she said.
Julia Gillard chatting with cricketer Ricky Ponting. (AFP/Files)
They had also discussed the loss of privacy that came with public office and an "obsessive" media poring over every detail of their past lives, Gillard said, recalling how Clinton advised her "to stand up to it".
Gillard will not be standing for re-election when Australia goes to the polls later this year after promising to retire from politics if she lost the Labor leadership ballot.
Rudd beat her 57 votes to 45.