The European Union on Saturday published a list of nearly 4,000 airlines that it says should reduce their impact on the environment from 2012 or face being banned from European airports.
Pollution from aircraft emissions currently represent three per cent of European emissions.
The EU adopted the policy in January despite opposition from the majority of International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) member countries and companies belonging to the International Air Transport Association (IATA). A new European law is due to come into force soon.
Under the new law, from January 1, 2012 all airlines -- both European and non-European -- operating within Europe would have to limit CO2 emissions or face penalties.
Airlines will have to start monitoring their emissions from January 2010, in line with plans submitted this year.
Carbon dioxide is widely considered a major greenhouse gas which is seen as contributing to climate change.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a scientific body which assesses climate change, says air transport produces two per cent of all carbon dioxide emissions from humans and 13 per cent of CO2 from transport.
The list was published in the Official Journal of the European Union.