The European Union added on Tuesday 18 people to its list of sanctions against Syria, pressurising the government to end its campaign of violence, which the United Nations said has killed 3,500 people since the crackdown started in March.
Here are some details of the sanctions imposed so far:
- The EU put 13 Syrian officials on its sanctions list on May 17, including a brother of the president. The measures, including asset freezes and travel bans, are part of a package of sanctions, including an arms embargo.
- The president's brother, Maher al-Assad, who commands the Republican Guard and is the second most powerful man in Syria; Ali Mamlouk, head of the General Intelligence Service; and Adulfattah Qudsiyeh, who runs military intelligence were also included. The next day, Switzerland said it would impose travel bans on 13 Syrian officials and freeze any of their assets held in Swiss banks.
- On May 23 the EU imposed sanctions on Assad himself, along with nine other senior Syrian officials. The next day, Switzerland followed suit.
- The EU published new sanctions on June 24 to include the three commanders of Iran's Revolutionary Guard -- Major-General Qasem Soleimani, Brigadier Commander Mohammad Ali Jafari of the Revolutionary Guard, and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb -- accused of supporting Syrian suppression. It also included business entities Bena Properties, the Al Mashreq Investment Fund, the Hamsho International Group and the Military Housing Establishment, all accused of funding Assad's government.
- Five new names were added on Aug. 2 to those already sanctioned. Apart from Defence Minister Ali Habib, they were Major-General Tawfiq Younes, head of internal security for the intelligence directorate, and Mohammad Mufleh, head of military intelligence in Hama.
- On Aug 19, EU ambassadors agreed to add 15 people and five institutions to a list of entities already targeted by EU asset freezes or travel bans.
- European Union governments agreed on Sept. 2 to ban imports of Syrian oil and extended sanctions to seven new Syrian individuals and entities. The EU ban on European firms from making new investments in Syria's oil industry took effect on Sept. 24. EU sanctions do allow imports of Syrian oil until Nov. 15 under contracts signed before Sept. 2.
- The EU imposed new sanctions on Sept. 24 on Syriatel, Syria's main mobile phone operator and also included a television station, Addounia TV, as well as three construction and investment firms linked to the Syrian military.
- Last month the EU agreed to add the Commercial Bank of Syria to its list of entities sanctioned.
- On Tuesday the EU added 18 more persons to its list of those sanctioned, including deputy interior minister,Saqr Khayr Bek, and lawyer, Bassam Sabbagh, as part of its efforts to curb Assad's access to funds.
- For more details on EU sanctions against Syria click on http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:296:0003:0005:EN:PDF
- Tuesday's listings bring the number of people targeted by the EU's Syrian sanctions to 74.
-- The United States imposed sanctions on Syria's intelligence agency and two relatives of Assad on April 29, in Washington's first concrete steps in response to the crackdown.
-- The sanctions, which included asset freezes and bans on U.S. business dealings, built on broader U.S. measures against Syria in place since 2004.
-- On May 18, Washington added Assad to the sanctions to press him to carry out promised political reforms.
-- Syria's vice president, prime minister, interior and defence ministers, the head of military intelligence and director of the political security branch are also sanctioned.
-- On June 29, the Treasury named the four major branches of Syria's security forces and said any assets they may have subject to U.S. jurisdiction would be frozen and that Americans were barred from any dealing with them. The Treasury also named Ismail Ahmadi Moghadam, the chief of Iran's Law Enforcement Forces, and a deputy, Ahmad-Reza Radan, for aiding Syria. It said Radan travelled to Damascus in April to offer expertise in Syria's crackdown on the Syrian people.
-- On Aug. 4, the Treasury added Muhammad Hamsho and his holding company, the Hamsho International Group, to its sanctions list.
-- It expanded sanctions against Assad's government on Aug. 10, adding the Commercial Bank of Syria, a Syrian state-owned institution and its Lebanon-based subsidiary, Syrian Lebanese Commercial Bank, to a blacklist of companies slapped with asset freezes. The Treasury also designated Syriatel, the country's main mobile phone operator, under a separate presidential order.
-- On Aug. 18, the U.S. implemented new sanctions including a freeze on all Syrian assets in the U.S. or held under U.S. jurisdiction. The sanctions also bar U.S. citizens from making new investments in or exporting services to Syria as well as banning U.S. imports of Syrian petroleum products. More companies were added to the blacklist including SYTROL and the Syrian Petroleum Company.
-- The United States again urged U.S. citizens on Sept. 15 to leave Syria immediately, repeating an August warning.