An unidentified man hurled his sneakers at Israel's chief justice, striking her between the eyes and knocking her off her chair, Israel Radio said.
State radio says Supreme Court Chief Justice Dorit Beinisch was taken to her office for treatment after the incident. Her condition was not immediately clear.
Israel Radio said the man flung two sneakers from the back of the courtroom and yelled, "You're corrupt."
The incident took place on Wednesday during a hearing on medical marijuana. It was unclear whether the attack was linked to the case.
Police confirmed a sneaker was hurled at judges during a court proceeding, but did provide any other details. They said security guards subdued the attacker and called police, who took the man into custody.