The Palestinians were on Monday admitted to Unesco as full members in a vote at the UN cultural body's general assembly in Paris.
"The general assembly decides to admit Palestine as a member of Unesco," said the resolution adopted by 107 countries. Fourteen countries voted against and 52 abstained.
"This vote will help erase a tiny part of the injustice done to the Palestinian people," foreign minister Riyad al-Malki told the assembly.
France, which had voiced serious doubts about the vote, approved the motion, along with almost all Arab, African, Latin American and Asian nations, including China and India.
Israel, the United States, Canada, Australia and Germany voted against, while Japan and Britain abstained.
"Today's vote brings the number of Unesco's member states to 195," the UN body said in a statement.