The Boeing 737-800 overshot the runway after arriving at Georgetown's Cheddi Jagan airport just past midnight from New York. It had stopped over in Trinidad.
Passengers screamed when the plane lost control and many fled through emergency exits when it finally came to a stop, a local newspaper reported.
"It was terror," a woman passenger whose husband opened the exit door told Kaieteur News.
"I was praying to Jesus."
One passenger suffered a broken leg, an airline spokeswoman said, and others reported neck and back injuries.
"We are very, very thankful and grateful that there are no deaths," Guyana's President Bharrat Jagdeo said at the airport.
A photo published by local newspaper Stabroek News showed a Caribbean Airlines plane with the half its fuselage broken off and resting in thick undergrowth.
Flight BW-523 was carrying 157 passengers and six crew.