US should "publicly expose" Pakistan whenever it fails to prevent infiltration across the LoC with India, shut down jihadi training operations and hold the ISI and Pakistani military to pledge that "they will not abet violent actors" in Kashmir, a US think-tank has said.
Releasing a report on Indo-US relations ahead of President Barack Obama's visit, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace said Kashmir issue is a challenge that the US can neither avoid nor resolve as New Delhi has the power to "rebuff" and unwelcome US involvement.
"Washington can do more than it typically has to hold the Pakistani military and the ISI to pledges that they will not abet violent actors in Kashmir," the report 'Toward Realistic US-India Relations' said.
"At a minimum, the United States should expose Pakistan publicly whenever it fails to act to prevent infiltrations across the Line of Control, shut down jihadi training operations, or arrest leaders of organizations that foment attacks on India," the report authored by George Perkovich said.
At the same time, the report said, Indian leaders must also do "more to correct the mis-governance and human rights abuses that are remobilising Muslims in the Kashmir Valley."
"Indians may reasonably expect the US to heed to their demand not to try to mediate the Kashmir issue with Pakistan, but they should not expect it to stay silent about large-scale Indian human rights violations or other policies that undermine conflict resolution there," the report said.
US has legitimate strategic interests in urging both India and Pakistan to explore all prospects for normalising Indo-Pak relations and reducing the threat of violent extremism in South Asia and elsewhere, the report said.
It said Pakistani elites are adapting to the reality that their country cannot wrest the Valley away from India and that it must negotiate a formula to recognise the territorial status quo and improve the quality of life of Kashmiris on both sides of the Line of Control.
Many Pakistanis recognise further that Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is the leader best suited to find and deliver a package that Indians, Kashmiris, and Pakistanis could live with, the report said.
"But if Pakistanis perceive that resolving the Kashmir issue will merely make the environment safer for India to bolster its conventional military advantage over Pakistan, they will balk," the report said.
"This is another reason that the United States and India must take great care to manage their defense cooperation in ways that reassure Pakistan that India's aims and capabilities are defensive, not offensive. Conventional military dialogue and confidence-building measures deserve greater attention for this purpose," it said.