Thousands took to the streets of Moscow and St Petersburg for a second weekend of protests over Russia's fraud-tainted parliamentary vote.
About 4,000 supporters of the Communist Party rallied just outside the walls of the Kremlin on a snowy this afternoon. They demanded a re-count of the vote and the government's resignation.
In St Petersburg, a rally in a central square drew about 3,000 people from various political parties and movement. Protesters chanted: "Russia without Putin!"
Frustration has grown with the ruling United Russia party and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, who has dominated Russian politics for over a decade.
The protests were small compared to nationwide rallies held in at least 60 Russian cities last weekend, including an unprecedented gathering of tens of thousands in Moscow.