UN negotiations for a global climate treaty resumed in Bangkok on Monday amid fears that delegates will fail to agree on a draft text ahead of December's crucial showdown in Copenhagen.
The talks are the latest session in nearly two years of haggling -- known as the "Bali Road Map" -- that have fallen far short of an agreement to tackle climate change beyond 2010.
UN climate chief Yvo de Boer said on the eve of the meetings that there was intense pressure on the 2,500 participants gathered in the Thai capital.
"We're arriving here in Bangkok with about, I think, a 280-page negotiating text which is basically impossible to work with," de Boer told AFP in Bangkok.
"We've got 16 days of negotiating time left before Copenhagen so things are getting tight and we need to get to a result."
The Bangkok talks, part of the 192-nation UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), run to October 9 and are the next to last negotiations before Copenhagen's deadline meeting.
They follow last week's UN climate summit in New York and a G20 leaders' meeting in Pittsburgh, which failed to break the deadlock on either of the two biggest issues -- reducing carbon emissions, and money.
Scientists say emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases should peak just six years from now.
Without drastic action, they fear drought, floods and rising sea levels could grip the world by the end of the century, causing famine, homelessness and strife.
On emissions, developed economies have acknowledged a historical responsibility for global warming. Most have put numbers on the table for slashing their carbon pollution by 2020 and by 2050.
But, they say, developing nations -- especially China, India and Brazil and other major emitters of tomorrow -- should also pledge to curb output of greenhouse gases.