Workplace anxiety is not necessarily bad for you
Turns out, workplace anxiety isn’t always a bad thing.
According to a study conducted by the University of Toronto, researchers explored the aspects and workplace anxiety and uncovered some intriguing findings: in some instances, it was found that it can help boost employee performance.
“There are a lot of theories and models of anxiety that exist, but this is the first model situated in the workplace focusing on employees,” said co-author Julie McCarthy.
McCarthy, along with lead author Bonnie Hayden Cheng, looked at both the triggers of workplace anxiety and also its relationship to employee performance.
“If you have too much anxiety, and you’re completely consumed by it, then it’s going to derail your performance,” said McCarthy. “On the other hand, moderate levels of anxiety can facilitate and drive performance.”
If employees are constantly distracted or thinking about things that are causing them anxiety, it will prevent them from completing tasks at work and that can eventually lead to exhaustion and burnout, said Cheng.
But in certain situations, anxiety can boost performance by helping employees focus and self-regulate their behaviour. She compared it to the athletes who are trained to harness anxiety in order to remain motivated and stay on task.
“After all, if we have no anxiety and we just don’t care about performance, then we are not going to be motivated to do the job,” said Cheng.
She said that work-anxious employees who are motivated are more likely to harness anxiety in order to help them focus on their tasks.
Those who are emotionally intelligent can recognize their feelings of anxiety and use it to regulate their performance, as well as those who are experienced and skilled at their job, are also less likely to have anxiety affect their performance.
Out of the model’s two categories, one covered dispositional aspects, which are those that align with individual character traits. If someone already experiences high levels of general anxiety, for example, their experiences with workplace anxiety will be different from those who don’t.
The other covered situational aspects, those that arise in specific job tasks. Some employees may be more affected by job appraisals, public speaking or other tasks that can distract them and lead to poor performance.
The study also outlined many of the triggers for workplace anxiety. The most prominent include jobs that require constant expression or suppression of emotion - think “service with a smile” - as well as jobs with constant looming deadlines or frequent organisational change.
Office politics and control over work are other important factors. Employee characteristics including age, gender and job tenure can also affect the experience of workplace anxiety.
The authors noted that anxiety is a growing issue for workplaces.
While the authors did not condone inducing anxiety in employees to foster high performance, the good news for employees who chronically experience anxiety at work, or who experience it from time to time, is that it can help performance if they can self-regulate their behaviour.
“Managing anxiety can be done by recognizing and addressing triggers of workplace anxiety, but also being aware of how to leverage it in order to drive performance,” said Cheng.
She said there are many strategies organisations can use to help employees. Some of these include training to help boost self-confidence, offering tools and resources to perform tasks at work, and equipping employees with strategies to recognise, use, and manage feelings of anxiety through emotional intelligence development.
The study is published in the Journal of Applied Psychology.
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