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China

Although China is not a direct party in the dispute over Kashmir, her contiguity to the region and certain historical facts have added new dimensions to the Kashmir issue.

india Updated: Sep 08, 2002 21:59 IST
PTI

Although China is not a direct party in the dispute over Kashmir, her contiguity to the region and certain historical facts have added new dimensions to the Kashmir issue. Pakistan gifted China with 2600 Sq. Km of Jammu and Kashmir territory in 1960s. Further, China is occupying 38,000 Sq. Km of India's territory in Aksai Chin.

In 1963, China and Pakistan delimited a boundary that India claims and illegally gave a part of Kashmir to China.

In 1987, a Pakistan-China protocol formalized demarcation of their boundary. The termination of this boundary at the Karakoram Pass on the Chinese line of control suggests that Pakistan recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Aksai Chin, which is part of the former princely state of Kashmir.

Chinese never had any presence south of Himalayas. With the occupation of Aksai Chin, they have got a foothold in the region.

On September 7, 1993, China and India signed an accord to reduce tensions along their border and to respect the LAC. During November 1996, China and India agreed to delimit the LAC and institute confidence-building measures (CBMs) along the frontier.

The agreement pledged non-aggression, prior notification of large troop movements, a 10-km no-fly zone for combat aircraft, and exchange of maps to resolve disagreements about the precise location of the LAC.

China and India have yet to address their large land boundary disputes. The bilateral relations between the two countries have further been complicated on issues of Tibet (Xizang), Sikkim and Kashmir.

India plays host to the Dalai Lama and a large number of Tibetan refugees. They present an implicit threat to Chinese control of Tibet, which it invaded in 1950. Thus, China sees India with a suspicion eye.

On its maps, China continues to portray Sikkim, which was absorbed by India in 1974, as an independent country. Also, the Aksai Chin, China and India dispute another section of Kashmir (the area west of Aksai Chin).

First Published: Sep 08, 2002 21:59 IST