Photos: Tracing Mahatma Gandhi’s life on his birth anniversary

UPDATED ON OCT 02, 2020 11:00 AM IST
October 2 marks the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation. Born in Porbander, Gujarat, on October 2, 1869, Gandhi trained as a lawyer in London. However, he returned to India and led the nationalist movement against the British, using tools of non-violence and non-cooperation, ultimately granting India her freedom on August 15, 1947. His beliefs and ideals are his legacy to the world in the present context. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
A young Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi (left) and his brother Laxmidas. Gandhi was a shy child and would return home as soon as school ended to avoid talking to anyone. After finishing school he trained in law in London. Returning from London as a trained barrister in 1891, Gandhi attended the Bombay High Court every day, walking 45 minutes to and from his home. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1908. After spending two uncertain years in India, Gandhi moved to South Africa in 1893 to represent an Indian merchant in a case. He stayed there for 21 years. It was there that he started challenging the discrimination meted out to coloured races. He even launched a successful satyagraha against unfair laws and taxes on the Indian community there. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
A young Mahatma Gandhi with his mentor and Congress leader Gopalkrishna Gokhale (right), his friend and doctor Hermann Kallenbach (left) and other members of the Reception Committee in Durban, South Africa, 1912. It was in South Africa that Gandhi developed his philosophy of passive resistance. He also got his first taste of racial discrimination in the country when he was thrown off a train in Pietermaritzburg. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi’s wife Kasturba in 1915. Gandhi returned to India on January 9, 1915. After his return, he was advised by his mentor Gopalkrishna Gokhale — a freedom fighter who belonged to the ilk of Moderates within the Congress — to tour India for a year before embarking upon any political work. He and Kasturba, who accompanied him on many of these travels, went by the third class railway compartment. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Gandhi with Sardar Vallabhai Patel during the Bardoli Satyagraha in Gujarat, 1928. The Mahatma came up with the term Satyagraha - literally, “holding on to truth” or, as Gandhi variously described it, truth-force, love force or soul-force – to describe his method of action in terms that also imbued it with moral content and authority. This philosophy enabled the farmers in Bardoli to challenge the unfair taxes that were levied on them by the government. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi during the Dandi March in 1930. The march was undertaken to protest the unfair salt laws that were imposed on Indians. It started from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad and ended in Dandi in coastal Surat over a course of 24 days and nights from March 12 to April 6. The date of flouting the salt law in Dandi carefully chosen to coincide with the 11th anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi (centre- right) at the Round Table Conference in London. The three Round Table Conferences, held over the years 1930-32 were a series of peace conferences organised by the British government to discuss constitutional reforms in India with members of the Indian leaders. However, little was achieved through these conferences. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Premier of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek with his wife, Soong May-ling, stand either side of Mahatma Gandhi after a meeting between Chiang Kai-shek and Gandhi to discuss matters of common concern to both India and China, in India, 1930. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Gandhi and Bose during a political meeting in Haripura, March 02, 1938. Gandhi did not want Bose to have a second term as Congress president and when Bose won against Gandhi’s chosen candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Gandhi refused to cooperate with Bose in forming a working committee. This situation forced Bose to resign as president and eventually leave the Congress to form his own political party. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi arrives in Delhi with members of his staff to confer with Viceroy Lord Linlithgow on the question of the war, on October 12, 1939. To the left of Gandhi is his associate Mahadev Desai and further left is Rajendra Prasad, who went on to become independent India’s first president. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore in Santiniketan in February 1940. Gandhi was fascinated with Bengali, so much so that he even practised writing Bengali on the last day of his life. For him, Bengali was not just one more script. It was the language in which Ekla cholo (Rabindranath Tagore’s song) was written. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Jawaharlal Nehru (left) and Mahatma Gandhi converse at a session of the Indian National Congress in Gowalia Tank, Mumbai, India, a few hours before their arrest on August 8, 1942. A day after the All India Congress committee passed the Quit India resolution, Gandhi along with Mahadev Desai, Sarojini Naidu and Mira Behn were arrested from GD Birla’s house in Malabar hill where they were staying. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi seen collecting funds for Harijans in Assam, January 1946. Assam was unsure about her own political future; the air was also thick with communal polarisation. When the British Cabinet Mission plan created a political imbroglio, Gandhi sided with Assam and asked the people to remain steadfast. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Gandhi seen touring Noakhali (now in Bangladesh) in 1946, as part of his peace mission. In 1947, while his lieutenants parleyed with the British regarding a truncated independence, Gandhi spent his time among the common people of Bengal, in riot-torn Noakhali in East Bengal and the violence-scarred city of Calcutta, trying to heal the wounds of religious violence and restore harmony. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi with Burmese Prime Minister Thakin Nu in Birla House, New Delhi, in 1947. (HT Archive)
A scene at Birla House, a day before Mahatma Gandhi’s assassination. Mahatma Gandhi spent his final 144 days in Delhi, the city that has the unenviable privilege of being the site of his assassination. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Mahatma Gandhi’s body at Birla House, New Delhi, 1948. Gandhi was assassinated on the evening of January 30 , 1948, in the grounds of the Birla House, now known as Gandhi Smriti Memorial. Unlike in later times when the remains of a departed leader would lie in state for two or three days to facilitate “antim darshan (last viewing),” Gandhi was cremated the following evening. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)
Jawaharlal Nehru watching over Mahatma Gandhi’s funeral pyre. The funeral entourage included President Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Baldev Singh, and JB Kripalani. The millions-strong procession began from Albuquerue Road, later renamed 30 January Marg. It crawled through Queensway, Kingsway, and Hardinge Avenue. Or through the present-day Janpath, Rajpath and Tilak Marg, respectively. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

October 2 marks the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation. Born in Porbander, Gujarat, on October 2, 1869, Gandhi trained as a lawyer in London. However, he returned to India and led the nationalist movement against the British, using tools of non-violence and non-cooperation, ultimately granting India her freedom on August 15, 1947. His beliefs and ideals are his legacy to the world in the present context. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

A young Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi (left) and his brother Laxmidas. Gandhi was a shy child and would return home as soon as school ended to avoid talking to anyone. After finishing school he trained in law in London. Returning from London as a trained barrister in 1891, Gandhi attended the Bombay High Court every day, walking 45 minutes to and from his home. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1908. After spending two uncertain years in India, Gandhi moved to South Africa in 1893 to represent an Indian merchant in a case. He stayed there for 21 years. It was there that he started challenging the discrimination meted out to coloured races. He even launched a successful satyagraha against unfair laws and taxes on the Indian community there. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

A young Mahatma Gandhi with his mentor and Congress leader Gopalkrishna Gokhale (right), his friend and doctor Hermann Kallenbach (left) and other members of the Reception Committee in Durban, South Africa, 1912. It was in South Africa that Gandhi developed his philosophy of passive resistance. He also got his first taste of racial discrimination in the country when he was thrown off a train in Pietermaritzburg. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi’s wife Kasturba in 1915. Gandhi returned to India on January 9, 1915. After his return, he was advised by his mentor Gopalkrishna Gokhale — a freedom fighter who belonged to the ilk of Moderates within the Congress — to tour India for a year before embarking upon any political work. He and Kasturba, who accompanied him on many of these travels, went by the third class railway compartment. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Gandhi with Sardar Vallabhai Patel during the Bardoli Satyagraha in Gujarat, 1928. The Mahatma came up with the term Satyagraha - literally, “holding on to truth” or, as Gandhi variously described it, truth-force, love force or soul-force – to describe his method of action in terms that also imbued it with moral content and authority. This philosophy enabled the farmers in Bardoli to challenge the unfair taxes that were levied on them by the government. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi during the Dandi March in 1930. The march was undertaken to protest the unfair salt laws that were imposed on Indians. It started from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad and ended in Dandi in coastal Surat over a course of 24 days and nights from March 12 to April 6. The date of flouting the salt law in Dandi carefully chosen to coincide with the 11th anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi (centre- right) at the Round Table Conference in London. The three Round Table Conferences, held over the years 1930-32 were a series of peace conferences organised by the British government to discuss constitutional reforms in India with members of the Indian leaders. However, little was achieved through these conferences. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Premier of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek with his wife, Soong May-ling, stand either side of Mahatma Gandhi after a meeting between Chiang Kai-shek and Gandhi to discuss matters of common concern to both India and China, in India, 1930. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Gandhi and Bose during a political meeting in Haripura, March 02, 1938. Gandhi did not want Bose to have a second term as Congress president and when Bose won against Gandhi’s chosen candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Gandhi refused to cooperate with Bose in forming a working committee. This situation forced Bose to resign as president and eventually leave the Congress to form his own political party. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi arrives in Delhi with members of his staff to confer with Viceroy Lord Linlithgow on the question of the war, on October 12, 1939. To the left of Gandhi is his associate Mahadev Desai and further left is Rajendra Prasad, who went on to become independent India’s first president. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore in Santiniketan in February 1940. Gandhi was fascinated with Bengali, so much so that he even practised writing Bengali on the last day of his life. For him, Bengali was not just one more script. It was the language in which Ekla cholo (Rabindranath Tagore’s song) was written. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Jawaharlal Nehru (left) and Mahatma Gandhi converse at a session of the Indian National Congress in Gowalia Tank, Mumbai, India, a few hours before their arrest on August 8, 1942. A day after the All India Congress committee passed the Quit India resolution, Gandhi along with Mahadev Desai, Sarojini Naidu and Mira Behn were arrested from GD Birla’s house in Malabar hill where they were staying. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi seen collecting funds for Harijans in Assam, January 1946. Assam was unsure about her own political future; the air was also thick with communal polarisation. When the British Cabinet Mission plan created a political imbroglio, Gandhi sided with Assam and asked the people to remain steadfast. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Gandhi seen touring Noakhali (now in Bangladesh) in 1946, as part of his peace mission. In 1947, while his lieutenants parleyed with the British regarding a truncated independence, Gandhi spent his time among the common people of Bengal, in riot-torn Noakhali in East Bengal and the violence-scarred city of Calcutta, trying to heal the wounds of religious violence and restore harmony. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi with Burmese Prime Minister Thakin Nu in Birla House, New Delhi, in 1947. (HT Archive)

A scene at Birla House, a day before Mahatma Gandhi’s assassination. Mahatma Gandhi spent his final 144 days in Delhi, the city that has the unenviable privilege of being the site of his assassination. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Mahatma Gandhi’s body at Birla House, New Delhi, 1948. Gandhi was assassinated on the evening of January 30 , 1948, in the grounds of the Birla House, now known as Gandhi Smriti Memorial. Unlike in later times when the remains of a departed leader would lie in state for two or three days to facilitate “antim darshan (last viewing),” Gandhi was cremated the following evening. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

Jawaharlal Nehru watching over Mahatma Gandhi’s funeral pyre. The funeral entourage included President Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Baldev Singh, and JB Kripalani. The millions-strong procession began from Albuquerue Road, later renamed 30 January Marg. It crawled through Queensway, Kingsway, and Hardinge Avenue. Or through the present-day Janpath, Rajpath and Tilak Marg, respectively. (Courtesy National Gandhi Museum)

About The Gallery

October 2 marks the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation, the man who led India’s freedom movement and the visionary who introduced the world to the power of truth as a force (satyagraha), non violence and civil disobedience, inspiring political leaders and mass movements in many countries. Gandhi continues to dominate public consciousness in India and across the world. Here’s a look at his life, starting from his childhood in Gujarat, his activism days in South Africa, and ultimately his freedom struggle in India.

[OTHER GALLERIES]

Workers install heavy-duty security fencing around the US Capitol a day after supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump stormed the premises in Washington, DC. on January 7. 11

Photos: Aftermath of US Capitol breach

PUBLISHED ON JAN 09, 2021 06:05 PM IST
SHARE
Story Saved