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Two years of conflict in Syria

The bloody conflict in Syria began nearly two years ago as peaceful protests for reform in the wake of the Arab Spring, but soon morphed into bitter civil war as the regime cracked down.

world Updated: Mar 10, 2013 16:30 IST

The bloody conflict in Syria began nearly two years ago as peaceful protests for reform in the wake of the Arab Spring, but soon morphed into bitter civil war as the regime cracked down.

The United Nations says that more than 70,000 have been killed since the uprising started, while one million have become refugees and millions displaced.

March 2011
First protests after calls on Facebook for a "Day of Dignity."

18-27: Crackdowns in Damascus, Banias and Daraa, cradle of the uprising, where 100 people are reportedly killed on the 23rd. Factfile on Syria

Protests spread and strengthen, with calls for Bashar al-Assad's regime to fall. Debates on 'Twitter revolutions,' Arab Spring

Anti-Syrian regime protesters carrying a giant Syrian revolution flag, during a demonstration, in Aleppo, Syria. (AP/Aleppo Media Center AMC)

: US President Barack Obama and his allies urge Assad to quit. Western and Arab states later impose sanctions on his regime.

Creation of the opposition Syrian National Council (SNC). Attacks, massacres of Syrian revolt

June, 2012
UN observers, deployed to monitor an April ceasefire deal which was not respected, suspend operations.

Four senior security officials, including Assad's brother-in-law Assef Shawkat, killed in a Damascus bombing.

Rebels from al Qaeda affiliated Jabhat al-Nusra, as they sit on a truck full of ammunition, at Taftanaz air base, that was captured by the rebels, in Idlib province. The Arabic words on the flag, right, read: "There is no God only God and Mohamad his prophet, Jabhat al-Nusra." (AP/ENN)

Russia and China for the third time veto a UN Security Council resolution that would threaten sanctions against Assad. Syria opposition, UN envoy spar over Assad’s ouster

23: Regime forces say they have reclaimed most of Damascus after days of unprecedented clashes.

28: The military launches a dawn assault on Syria's economic capital Aleppo.


The opposition signs a unity deal in Doha to form a national coalition, led by Ahmed Moaz al-Khatib.

The regime launches a major offensive around the capital.

Washington puts key Syrian rebel group the Al-Nusra Front on its terror blacklist, citing al Qaeda links, a day after the Islamist jihadist faction captures a key army base.

22: Nato accuses the Syrian regime of firing Scud-style missiles at rebels.

January, 2013
Assad offers a road map to end the civil war, under which he would stay in power. The opposition rejects it.

26: Nato says that a Patriot missile battery is operational on Turkey's border with Syria.

Khatib says he is ready for conditional talks with Assad's regime.

Israel implicitly confirms carrying out an air strike on a military site in Syria in late January.

22: A spate of bombings across Damascus kills at least 83 people.

28: Washington says it will provide non-lethal direct aid to the rebels.

Rebels detain 21 Filipino UN peacekeepers in the Golan Heights between Syria and Israel. Rebels free 21 UN captives

The northern city of Raqa comes under total rebel control, in their biggest victory to date. Philippines to continue UN help

Some of the 21 Filipino United Nations (UN) peacekeepers at the press conference upon their arrival at Jordanian Army Headquarters in Amman Jordan. (AP)