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Major Naxalite Outfits

Of the various ultra-leftist outfits, PWG, MCC and PGA are the most ferocious ones with long history of gory violence.

india Updated: Dec 15, 2005 02:56 IST

Of various radical leftists, People's War Group and Maoist Communist Centre are most ferociously pursuing the Marx-Lenin and Mao-inspire ''protracted people'' war in at least seven states of India.

The "links" of the two with Pakistan's ISI and Nepal Maoists and reports of their bid to carve out a corridor from some areas of MP, AP, Bihar and UP up to Nepal have alarmed Indian government. PWG and MCC have also joined Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organisations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA) giving the red movement an international dimension.


Formed by Kondapalli Seetharamaiah (KS) on April 22, 1980, it is the most dominant naxalite force in India with about 54 Dallas (forest squads) in Andhra Pradesh alone. 12 others are active in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Kerala. It has claimed thousands of lives besides destroying property worth crores. It has "links" with Pakistan's ISI, Nepal Maoists and CCOMPOSA.

Area of operation: Andhra Pradesh remains its main area of operation where they hold sway in 12 of the 23 districts. These include Warangal, Khammam, Nizamabad, Midak, Nalgonda, MahaBubhagar, Adilabad, East Godawari and Karimnagar.

Cadres: According to police it has 1,100 full time "underground cadres" besides "over 5000 over-ground militants". Women constitute 30 per cent of PWG. Each of the 54 dalams in AP comprises 9-12 members. AP police say it had 74 dalams at its height in 1997. It has raised at least four military platoons comprising 25-30 cadres each.

Skill and Firepower: Like any military organisation it conducts periodic military training that includes jungle warfare skills. Over the years its cadres have gained expertise in techniques of insurgency like mine laying and ambush. It has an awesome arsenal that include AK-47 rifles, revolvers, DBBL (double barrel) and SBBL guns, which count in thousands.

Hit List: Its hit list includes almost all the key political leaders of the state. Over 700 people of Telengana region, including MLAs, MPs, Zilla Parishad chairmen and Mandal Presidents and landlords, are provided round the clock security in view of naxal threat.

More than 225 political leaders, including those of the ruling Telugu Desam Party, Congress, BJP, CPI and CPM besides rich traders have been killed by PWG in the last 10 years. During the last one year, Naxalites have attacked 19 government buildings (including police stations) and 4,000 RTC buses besides causing extensive damage to railways.

Sources of Income: As per the state sources, extortion remains the main source of PWG funds. An amount of more than Rs 10 crores is collected from contractors, traders, businessmen, professionals like doctors, lawyers, accountants and even government officials, informed sources say. (From HT Archives)


It was launched by PWG on Dec 2, 2000, reportedly on the pattern of New People's Party of Philippines and People's Liberation Army of Peru with an objective of countering security forces offensive against naxalites.

PGA has started its separate branches in parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, North Telangana (AP) and in tribal belt of Dandkaranya which includes parts of AP, Maharashtra, MP and Orissa. It aims to establish a strong network across India.


Formed on October 20, 1969 with Kanhai Chatterjee and Amulya Sen as its founding members, it is one of the most dreaded naxalite outfits, mainly active in Bihar and Jharkhand. Having entered Bihar in 1971, it has carried out a string of massacres, particularly targeting upper castes, in the state and is constantly at war with landlords' private army Ranvir Sena besides another ultra-leftist outfit PWG, contractors and traders.

Area of Operation: It is active in six naxalism-hit districts of Bihar and 14 districts in Jharkhand. These districts include Patna, Jehanabad, Gaya, Aurangabad, Nalanda, Nawadah, Bhojpur and Rohtas in Bihar and Chhatra, Palamu, Garhwa, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Palamu, Dhumka, Sahebganj, Gumla, Lohardagga, and Ranchi in Jharkhand.

Cadres: It has 300 professional revolutionaries, 60 armed squads and 30,000 members, informed sources in Bihar say.

Frontal Organisations:
Jan Pratirodh Sangharsh Manch, Krantikari Budhijivi Sangh, Krantikari Sanskritik Sangh, Krantikari Chhatra League, Communist Yuva League, Naari Mukti Sangh and Mazdoor Mukti Sangh are affiliated to MCC.

Its Central Committee is the main decision making body. MCC leadership in Bihar lies mainly with backward castes, particularly Yadavs and Dalits. It has declared a liberated zone in Bihar, which include Aurangabad district.

Its Bihar-Bengal Special Area Committee, Preparatory Committee for Revolutionary Peasant Struggles and Revolutionary Peasant Councils constantly monitor, review and enhance the MCC activities in the region.

Hit List: The MCC hit list includes Jharkhand Chief Minister Babulal Marandi.


A recent offshoot of Maoist Communist Centre, it is gradually gaining notoriety in Jharkhand.


Active in Bihar, it was formerly known as CPI (ML) Party Unity. Formed in 1978 in Bihar under N Prasad's leadership, it merged with People's War on Aug 11, 1999.
Area of Operation: It is active in 25 districts of Bihar.
Frontal Organisations: Six organisations - Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Parishad, Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti, Shramik Sangharsh Manch, Democratic Students Union, Bharat Naujawan Sabha and Jharkhand Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Parishad.


Formerly known as CPI (ML) which was founded by Comrade Charu Majumdar in 1969, it is seen "close" to "revolutionaries" although it has joined mainstream electoral system and claims to have distanced itself from ultra-leftist violence over the years. The name CPI (ML) Liberation was given by Subrato Dutta alias Jauhar after he reorganised CPI (ML) in early 70s following severe crackdown on ultra-leftists by the government.
Area of Operation: It is active in a number of states including Assam, West Bengal and Bihar.
Cadres: It has more than 5000 full time members and claims a total of over 2.5 lakh members.
Frontal Organisations: It runs five organisations - All India Students Association, Bihar Pradesh Kisan Sabha, All India Coordination Committee of Trade Unions, All India Progressive Women's Association and Jan Sanskritik Manch.


Besides MCC and PWG, a number of other smaller ultra-left groups are also active in Bihar.

• CPI (ML) Provisional Central Committee: Formed in 1977, it is active in Bokaro and Dhanbad.
CPI (ML) Red Flag: Formed in 1980, it has a presence in Jamshedpur.
CPI (ML) 2nd Central Committee: Formed in 1972 by Mahadeo Mukerjee, it is active in Vaishali, Bhagalpur and Banka.
CPI (ML) Santi Pal Group: It is active in Sahebganj, Godda, Saharsa and Purnea.
CPI (ML) ND: Formed in 1988 by Yatendra Kumar, it is active in Rohtas, Kaumru, East Champaran, Darbhanga, Samastipur, Mazaffarpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi.
CPI (ML) Bhaijee Group: Formed in 1990 by S R Bhaijee, it is active in West and East Champaran.
CPI (ML) Jansakti: It is active in Kaimur and East Champaran.
CPI (ML) Unity Initiative: Formed in 1990, it is active in Ranchi, Gumla and Dhanbad.
CPI (ML) Organising Committee: It is active in Kaimur under the leadership of B N Sharma.

First Published: May 09, 2003 17:07 IST