Male fertility tips: Know all about diagnosis, treatments for infertility in men

Updated on Nov 07, 2022 01:59 PM IST

The main sign of male infertility is simply inability to conceive. Here's all you need to know about the diagnosis for infertility in men and treatments to ensure male fertility

Male fertility tips: Know all about diagnosis, treatments for infertility in men (Yan Krukov)
Male fertility tips: Know all about diagnosis, treatments for infertility in men (Yan Krukov)
ByZarafshan Shiraz, Delhi

The incidence of infertility varies across different regions of the world where according to WHO estimates, 60- 80 million couples worldwide suffer from infertility. In almost half of all cases of infertility, the male factor is a major or contributing cause as there may be sexual dysfunction (Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation) as well as alteration in sperm concentration, motility or morphology.

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr Malti Madhu, MBBS, DNB (Obs and Gynae), Senior Consultant-Infertility and IVF specialist at Apollo Fertility, explained, “In severe male factor infertility, there may be total absence of sperms in ejaculation (Azoospermia). There may be various factors leading to abnormal sperm parameters like long term sickness, (such as kidney failure or liver disorder or uncontrolled diabetes), undescended testicles, hormonal imbalance or chromosomal defects.”

She cautioned, “Certain medications like testosterone replacement therapy, long term anabolic steroid use, cancer medication can sometimes impair sperm production. Environmental factors like certain industrial chemicals, heavy metals, exposure to radiation, tobacco smoking or overheating of testicles can deteriorate sperm parameters.”

Dr R Suchindra, Senior Consultant - Reproductive Medicine at Milann in Bangalore's Indiranagar, said, “You will probably both need to consult a doctor because many infertile couples have more than one cause of infertility. Finding the reason for infertility may need a variety of tests. Sometimes no root reason is ever found.” According to the health expert, male infertility issues are typically diagnosed by medical history and a general physical examination.

She revealed, “Examining your genitalia and questioning you about any hereditary disorders, ongoing health issues, ailments, injuries, or operations that may have an impact on your fertility are part of this process. Additionally, your doctor might inquire about your sexual behaviours and how those changed as you approached puberty semen examination. There are several techniques to collect samples of semen. By masturbating and ejaculating into a designated container at the doctor's office, you can submit a sample. Some males favour a different technique of semen collection due to cultural or religious beliefs. In certain circumstances, semen can be obtained by use a unique condom during sexual activity.”

Talking about treatment, she said, “The specific reason for infertility is frequently unknown. Your doctor might be able to suggest treatments or actions that will result in conception even if the precise cause is unclear. It is advised to check the female spouse as well in cases of infertility. For your companion, particular treatments might be suggested. Or, you might discover that using assisted reproductive methods in your case is appropriate.”

Dr R Suchindra listed that male infertility treatments include:

1. Surgery - For instance, a varicocele can frequently be surgically fixed, and a blocked vas deferens can usually be fixed. An earlier vasectomy can be undone. Sperm can frequently be extracted straight from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval procedures in situations where there are no sperm in the ejaculate.

2. Infection treatment - An infection of the reproductive tract may be treated with antibiotics, but fertility is not always returned.

Talking about the treatments for issues with sexual activity, she said that in cases of erectile dysfunction or early ejaculation, medication or counseling can assist enhance fertility. She recommended:

1. Medicines and therapies for hormones - In circumstances when infertility is brought on by high or low levels of particular hormones or issues with how the body uses hormones, your doctor may advise hormone replacement or medicines.

2. Use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) - Depending on your unique situation and preferences, ART treatments may involve acquiring sperm by routine ejaculation, surgical extraction, or from donors. The sperm are subsequently used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilisation or insertion into the female vaginal canal.

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