The Wizard of Oz was released in 1939.
The Wizard of Oz was released in 1939.

The Wizard of Oz is the most influential movie of all time, says study

1939 musical drama, The Wizard of Oz, is the most influential film of all time, a new study says. It is followed by Star Wars and Psycho.
By HT Correspondent | Press Trust of India, London
PUBLISHED ON NOV 30, 2018 05:47 PM IST

The Wizard of Oz is the most influential film of all time, followed by Star Wars and Psycho, according to a study. Researchers at the University of Turin in Italy calculated an influence score for 47,000 films listed in the internet movie database(IMDb).

The score was based on how much each film had been referenced by subsequent films. The study, published in the journal Applied Network Science, found that the top 20 most influential films were all produced before 1980 and mostly in the US. The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film.

"We propose an alternative method to box office takings -- which are affected by factors beyond the quality of the film such as advertising and distribution -- and reviews -- which are ultimately subjective -- for analysing the success of a film," said Livio Bioglio, the lead author of the study.

 

"We have developed an algorithm that uses references between movies as a measure for success, and which can also be used to evaluate the career of directors, actors and actresses, by considering their participation in top-scoring movies," Bioglio said.

Applying the algorithm to directors, Alfred Hitchcock, Steven Spielberg and Stanley Kubrick ranked third, fifth and sixth respectively.

When the researchers used another approach to remove the bias of older movies --which, because they were produced earlier, can potentially influence a greater number of subsequent films -- Hitchcock, Spielberg and Brian De Palma occupied the top spots instead.

When applied to actors, the algorithm ranked Samuel L Jackson, Clint Eastwood and Tom Cruise as the top three.

 

The researchers noticed a strong gender bias towards male actors; the only female in the top ten was Lois Maxwell, who played the recurring role of Miss Moneypenny in the James Bond franchise.

"The scores of top-ranked actresses tend to be lower compared to their male colleagues," Bioglio said. "The only exceptions were musical movies, where results show moderate gender equality, and movies produced in Sweden, where actresses ranked better compared to actors," Bioglio said.

To calculate the influence score for the 47,000 films investigated in this study, the researchers treated the films as nodes in a network and measured the number of connections each film has to other films and how influential the films connected to it are.

Similar methods have already been widely applied to measuring the impact of work in other fields, such as scientific publications.

"The idea of using network analysis for ranking films is not completely new, but to our knowledge this is the first study that uses these techniques to also rank personalities involved in film production," Bioglio said.

The researchers suggest that their method could be used for research in the arts and by film historians.

However, they caution that the results can only be applied to Western cinema as the data on IMDb are strongly biased towards films produced in Western countries.

Follow @htshowbiz for more

SHARE THIS ARTICLE ON
app
Close
Armie Hammer arrives at the Oscars 2018.(Jordan Strauss/Invision/AP)
Armie Hammer arrives at the Oscars 2018.(Jordan Strauss/Invision/AP)

Armie Hammer contacted by cops after posting disturbing video on private account

PUBLISHED ON JAN 22, 2021 01:44 PM IST
  • Actor Armie Hammer was contacted by the Cayman Islands police after they received a complaint about a video he posted on a private Instagram account. The video showed a woman posing on all-fours in a hotel room.
Close
The White Tiger movie review: Adarsh Gourav, Priyanka Chopra Jonas and Rajkummar Rao in a still from the new Ramin Bahrani film.
The White Tiger movie review: Adarsh Gourav, Priyanka Chopra Jonas and Rajkummar Rao in a still from the new Ramin Bahrani film.

The White Tiger review: Adarsh Gourav roars in Netflix's angry answer to Slumdog

UPDATED ON JAN 22, 2021 08:46 PM IST
  • The White Tiger movie review: Adarsh Gourav delivers a star-making performance in Ramin Bahrani's angry answer to Slumdog Millionaire, co-starring Priyanka Chopra Jonas and Rajkummar Rao.
Close
Deepika Padukone was seen with Vin Diesel in xXx: The Return of Xander Cage.
Deepika Padukone was seen with Vin Diesel in xXx: The Return of Xander Cage.

Deepika Padukone signs Hollywood agency ICM

PUBLISHED ON JAN 22, 2021 01:02 PM IST
Deepika Padukone is hoping more representation in Hollywood and has now signed on agency ICM, which currently represents multiple stars such as Eugene Levy, Regina King and others.
Close
Daniel Craig as James Bond in No Time To Die.
Daniel Craig as James Bond in No Time To Die.

James Bond movie No Time to Die delayed again, release date pushed to Oct

Reuters
PUBLISHED ON JAN 22, 2021 10:25 AM IST
The release of James Bond movie No Time to Die has been postponed again. The film is now scheduled to release in October.
Close
Tom Holland in his audition tape for Spider-Man.
Tom Holland in his audition tape for Spider-Man.

Tom Holland recalls 'terrible' Marvel audition process for Spider-Man

UPDATED ON JAN 21, 2021 02:22 PM IST
  • Actor Tom Holland spoke about the arduous audition process for Spider-Man in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and the time he thought he'd be fired from the role.
Close
Ben Affleck and Ana de Armas have reportedly ended their relationship.
Ben Affleck and Ana de Armas have reportedly ended their relationship.

Ana de Armas' life-size cutout trashed outside Ben Affleck's house after breakup

PUBLISHED ON JAN 20, 2021 03:54 PM IST
  • A life-size cutout of Ana de Armas was trashed outside Ben Affleck's house, amid reports of their breakup.
Close
Chris Hemsworth and Sam Hargrave on the set of Extraction.
Chris Hemsworth and Sam Hargrave on the set of Extraction.

Extraction director says Marvel universe is inspiration for franchise's future

PUBLISHED ON JAN 19, 2021 02:30 PM IST
  • Joe and Anthony Russo are bringing their Marvel Cinematic Universe experience to fleshing out the Extraction franchise, director Sam Hargrave has said.
Close
Justin Timberlake is reportedly trying to mend his relationship Jessica Biel.
Justin Timberlake is reportedly trying to mend his relationship Jessica Biel.

Justin Timberlake announces birth of second son with Jessica Biel, reveals name

PUBLISHED ON JAN 18, 2021 01:38 PM IST
  • Celebrity couple Justin Timberlake and Jessica Biel have welcomed their second child, a year after he publicly apologised for inappropriate behaviour amid cheating rumours.
Close
Priyanka Chopra and Adarsh Gourav in The White Tiger.
Priyanka Chopra and Adarsh Gourav in The White Tiger.

Priyanka Chopra drops Divine's banging original song from White Tiger. Listen

PUBLISHED ON JAN 15, 2021 09:02 PM IST
  • Priyanka Chopra has shared Jungle Mantra, an original song from the White Tiger soundtrack, by Divine, featuring Vince Staples and Pusha T. Listen here.
Close
Ray Fisher played Cyborg in Justice League.
Ray Fisher played Cyborg in Justice League.

Ray Fisher confirms he's been removed from Flash movie, amid standoff with WB

UPDATED ON JAN 15, 2021 04:04 PM IST
  • Actor Ray Fisher has released a lengthy statement confirming his removal from the upcoming Flash movie, amid his standoff with Warner Bros.
Close
Riz Ahmed has talked about his wife for the first time.
Riz Ahmed has talked about his wife for the first time.

Riz Ahmed reveals his 'secret' wedding details along with wife's name

ANI
PUBLISHED ON JAN 15, 2021 03:35 PM IST
Riz Ahmed has talked about his wife for the first time, how they got married during the pandemic and more.
Close
Chris Evans played Captain America in multiple MCU movies.
Chris Evans played Captain America in multiple MCU movies.

Chris Evans denies being in talks with Marvel to return as Captain America

PUBLISHED ON JAN 15, 2021 11:16 AM IST
As per fresh reports, Chris Evans is reportedly in talks to return to the Marvel Cinematic Universe as Captain America. The actor, however, has denied the rumours.
Close
Armie Hammer and Elizabeth Chambers have two kids together.
Armie Hammer and Elizabeth Chambers have two kids together.

Armie Hammer breaks silence on DMs scandal, says he's quit his upcoming film

PUBLISHED ON JAN 14, 2021 09:29 PM IST
  • Actor Armie Hammer announced that he is quitting his upcoming film, amid a scandal around messages that he allegedly sent a woman.
Close
Patralekhaa reminisced about Rajkummar Rao's journey from Gurugram to New York.
Patralekhaa reminisced about Rajkummar Rao's journey from Gurugram to New York.

Patralekhaa spots The White Tiger hoarding in NYC, gives shout-out to Rajkummar

PUBLISHED ON JAN 14, 2021 07:57 PM IST
  • Patralekhaa spotted Rajkummar Rao on a hoarding of The White Tiger in New York and shared a picture on Instagram stories. She reminisced about his incredible journey, from Gurugram to New York.
Close
One Night in Miami movie review: Debutante director Regina King assembles an astonishingly excellent cast.
One Night in Miami movie review: Debutante director Regina King assembles an astonishingly excellent cast.

One Night in Miami review: Blistering film traps four Black icons in motel room

UPDATED ON JAN 14, 2021 07:51 PM IST
  • One Night in Miami movie review: Debutante director Regina King extracts terrific performances from her four leading men, in a high-concept drama about power and responsibility.
Close
SHARE
Story Saved
OPEN APP