The findings reported in JCI Insight shows that even though bone marrow transplant can be a lifesaving procedure for patients with blood cancers. (Pixabay)
The findings reported in JCI Insight shows that even though bone marrow transplant can be a lifesaving procedure for patients with blood cancers. (Pixabay)

Ensuring gut integrity may improve results in blood cancer: Study

A new study led by cancer researchers of Medical University of South Carolina found that a solitary strain of Bacteroides fragilis altogether diminished graft-versus-host disease by ensuring gut integrity.
ANI, Washington [us]
PUBLISHED ON FEB 11, 2021 12:48 PM IST

wA new study led by cancer researchers of Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) found that a solitary strain of Bacteroides fragilis altogether diminished graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by ensuring gut integrity.

The findings reported in JCI Insight shows that even though bone marrow transplant can be a lifesaving procedure for patients with blood cancers; however, GVHD is a potentially fatal side effect of transplantation, and it has limited treatment options. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that better treatment options may be on the horizon for patients with GVHD.

Xue-Zhong Yu, M.D., associate director of Basic Science at Hollings Cancer Center, and lead author Hanief Sofi, Ph.D., realized that protecting the health of the gastrointestinal tract is a good target for reducing severe GVHD.

"If we can figure out how to keep a patient's intestinal tissue healthy before and after bone marrow transplant, then the patient's outcome will be much better. We know that restoring the microbiota diversity in the gut is an effective solution, but that comes with many challenges," said Yu.

Patients with blood cancers, such as leukemia, must undergo radiation and chemotherapy before they can get their new cancer-free immune system through bone marrow transplantation. The balance between the immune system and intestinal microbiota, communities of microorganisms that live in the gut, is especially important for proper intestinal health. Unfortunately, the radiation and chemotherapy radically throw off this balance, and the diversity of the microbiota is reduced 100- or even 1,000-fold. This leads to a condition called "leaky gut."

Clinical studies have shown that patients who recover microbiota diversity faster have better outcomes and less severe GVHD. Reduced microbiota diversity is associated with more severe GVHD.

Other studies have shown that fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) can be effective at reducing GVHD, but the challenge is how to get the right donor. Patients are heavily immune-deficient after bone marrow transplantation, and there is a great risk of bad infection if FMT is used in humans.

The Yu laboratory used two different strains of mice to establish a GVHD model that closely resembles the biology that occurs in humans after bone marrow transplantation. The mice developed acute GVHD. FMT significantly reduced acute GVHD in this model and reduced donor T cell proliferation in the organs, which is what triggers GVHD.

The researchers then used genetic sequencing to see which bacteria strains were most different between the fecal material of GVHD mice that received FMT and those that did not receive FMT.

Mice that had the best outcome, the lowest GVHD, had the highest levels of a bacteria called B. fragilis. Mice given this single bacterial strain had significantly reduced acute and chronic (long-term) GVHD compared to mice that did not get B. fragilis. In fact, B. fragilis alone was as good or even better than FMT.

Administration of B. fragilis increased overall gut microbial diversity, including increasing the amount of other beneficial bacteria strains. Surprisingly, GVHD was reduced in this model not only by live bacteria but also by bacteria that had been killed by short exposure to high heat.

The observation that B. fragilis was the main effective bacteria in the FMT process was not entirely new: B. fragilis also reduces autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes and colitis.

The current study by Yu and colleagues has two important findings. First, a molecule called polysaccharide A on the surface of B. fragilis appears to be critical for the GVHD-reducing functions of this bacteria. When the bacteria were modified to lack polysaccharide A, GVHD was not reduced compared to mice that did not receive any B. fragilis.

Secondly, the administration of B. fragilis did not reduce the graft-versus-leukemia or cancer-killing effect of the bone marrow transplantation, even though it did reduce donor T cell expansion in the gut. This is critical, since GVHD treatment options that reduce the graft-versus-leukemia effect would not be clinically significant.

"If this can be translated into the clinic, it would be a safer, easier and more effective treatment option," said Yu.

Further study in humans is needed to get this potential treatment into the clinic. Hematopoietic stem cells, given via bone marrow transplant, are classic immunotherapies for liquid tumors, but strategies to make the transplantation safer and more beneficial are sorely needed. Hollings Cancer Center researchers continue to search for the most effective therapies to improve patient outcomes and quality of life, he said.

Follow more stories on Facebook and Twitter

This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text.
SHARE THIS ARTICLE ON
Topics
Close
Katrina Kaif shares unseen workout video(Instagram/ katrinakaif)
Katrina Kaif shares unseen workout video(Instagram/ katrinakaif)

Katrina Kaif takes squats up a notch with resistance band in new fitness video

By Nishtha Grover, Delhi
PUBLISHED ON MAR 06, 2021 12:52 PM IST
  • Katrina Kaif recently hosted an Ask Me Anything session on Instagram and shared never seen before images and videos with her fans. She also posted about her healthy breakfast and intense fitness routine.
Close
The study highlighted the ways that public health interventions and policies can better support quit attempts and harm reduction, both during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond.(Pixabay)
The study highlighted the ways that public health interventions and policies can better support quit attempts and harm reduction, both during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond.(Pixabay)

Covid-19 lockdown linked to uptick in tobacco use: Study

ANI, Washington [us]
PUBLISHED ON MAR 06, 2021 12:33 PM IST
A new study has found that pandemic-related anxiety, boredom, and irregular routines were cited as major drivers of increased nicotine and tobacco use during the initial Covid-19 lockdown.
Close
Aditi Rao Hydari shares hilarious fitness video(Instagram/aditiraohydari )
Aditi Rao Hydari shares hilarious fitness video(Instagram/aditiraohydari )

No weights, no problem: Aditi Rao Hydari shows how to exercise without equipment

By Nishtha Grover, Delhi
PUBLISHED ON MAR 06, 2021 08:20 AM IST
  • Aditi Rao Hydari shows you how to do weight training without actually using weights in her latest fitness clip. Saying that this video is hilarious would be an understatement.
Close
Study finds mask mandates, dining out influence virus spread(Pexels)
Study finds mask mandates, dining out influence virus spread(Pexels)

Study shows connection between face masks, dining out and Covid-19 cases

AP, New York
UPDATED ON MAR 06, 2021 07:46 AM IST
  • A study done in the USA showed that wearing masks can actually curb the spread of the novel coronavirus. However, dining at restaurants, both in open area and inside, can increase the number of Covid-19 cases and deaths.
Close
Following a vegan diet leads to poorer bone health? Here's what study has to say(Photo by Louis Hansel @shotsoflouis on Unsplash)
Following a vegan diet leads to poorer bone health? Here's what study has to say(Photo by Louis Hansel @shotsoflouis on Unsplash)

Following a vegan diet leads to poorer bone health? Here's what study has to say

ANI
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 09:02 PM IST
A new study observed people following a vegan diet and discovered that they had lower ultrasound values compared to others which indicates poorer bone health
Close
Young people with unstable work life might suffer mental health problems later(Photo by Tim Gouw on Unsplash)
Young people with unstable work life might suffer mental health problems later(Photo by Tim Gouw on Unsplash)

Young people with unstable work life might suffer mental health problems later

ANI
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 08:48 PM IST
A new study reveals that a precarious labour market may be shaping a poorer future for mental health of the young working population hence, future public health policies should address this problem in order to prevent long-term absenteeism
Close
Covid-19: Oxford study hint AstraZeneca vaccine effective against Brazil variant(Photo by Ivan Diaz on Unsplash)
Covid-19: Oxford study hint AstraZeneca vaccine effective against Brazil variant(Photo by Ivan Diaz on Unsplash)

Covid-19: Oxford study hint AstraZeneca vaccine effective against Brazil variant

Reuters
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 08:30 PM IST
The data from a study conducted at the University of Oxford indicates that the Covid-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca PLC will not need to be modified in order to protect against the Brazilian variant, which is believed to have originated in the Amazonian city of Manaus
Close
Here’s how you can locate Covid-19 on your skin(Twitter/samrinahashmi)
Here’s how you can locate Covid-19 on your skin(Twitter/samrinahashmi)

Here’s how you can locate Covid-19 on your skin

By Zarafshan Shiraz
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 06:41 PM IST
  • As the new coronavirus variants spread and Covid-19 symptoms continue to increase and expand, here’s how you can locate the infection through these four kinds of skin changes
Close
 (Shutterstock)
(Shutterstock)

Were you up all night again? Tips to help you beat 4 am angst

By Vanessa Viegas
PUBLISHED ON MAR 05, 2021 05:45 PM IST
Arguments you could have navigated better, vital to-dos that you’re not sure you’ve done, the quiet whisperings of an anxious mind — these are a few of our least favourite things
Close
According to a new study, digital solutions including remote monitoring can help chronic pain sufferers manage their pain and reduce the probability of misuse of prescription opioids.(Unsplash)
According to a new study, digital solutions including remote monitoring can help chronic pain sufferers manage their pain and reduce the probability of misuse of prescription opioids.(Unsplash)

Study suggests digital apps can help chronic pain sufferers

ANI, Washington [us]
PUBLISHED ON MAR 05, 2021 04:54 PM IST
Health apps have become a popular tool to track fitness, weight loss, sleep, and even menstrual cycles, and now another benefit of using digital applications has come to light.
Close
Natasa Stankovic shares new fitness video(Instagram/natasastankovic__ )
Natasa Stankovic shares new fitness video(Instagram/natasastankovic__ )

Natasa Stankovic's fitness video will serve as motivation for weekend workout

By Nishtha Grover, Delhi
PUBLISHED ON MAR 05, 2021 04:31 PM IST
  • Natasa Stankovic recently shared a workout video which is a mix of boxing and zumba. The extensive fitness session is inspiring us to stop procrastinating and start our weekend on a healthy note.
Close
Music producer Rudy Willingham's hilarious hack might make kids drink more milk(Instagram/rudy_willingham)
Music producer Rudy Willingham's hilarious hack might make kids drink more milk(Instagram/rudy_willingham)

Music producer Rudy Willingham's hilarious hack might make kids drink more milk

By Zarafshan Shiraz
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 02:31 PM IST
  • Music producer Rudy Willingham recently broke the Internet as he suggested fathers out there to use Beer Bong setup as an innovative feeding technique to make toddlers like his daughter, drink more milk easily without any mess | Watch
Close
Representational Image(Unsplash)
Representational Image(Unsplash)

Doubling masks doesn't reduce chances of coronavirus spread: Japan supercomputer

Reuters, Tokyo, Japan
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 02:11 PM IST
The findings in part contradict recent recommendations from the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that two masks were better than one at reducing a person's exposure to the coronavirus.
Close
Dwayne Johnson(Instagram)
Dwayne Johnson(Instagram)

Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson channels Covid-19 lessons into new energy drink

Bloomberg
UPDATED ON MAR 05, 2021 02:07 PM IST
The megawatt actor and entrepreneur on balancing his time, keeping healthy, and the unexpected benefits of pandemic precautions
Close
While the study does not establish that slow walking is a cause of death, the association persisted across at least nine tumour types.(Unsplash)
While the study does not establish that slow walking is a cause of death, the association persisted across at least nine tumour types.(Unsplash)

Study finds walking pace among cancer survivors may be important for survival

ANI, Washington [us]
PUBLISHED ON MAR 05, 2021 01:08 PM IST
A new study led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the National Cancer Institute has identified an association between slow walking pace and an increased risk of death among cancer survivors.
Close
SHARE
Story Saved
OPEN APP