Prostate Cancer: Causes, symptoms, risk factors and treatment

  • Risk factors of prostate cancer depends on a variety of factors such as race and ethnicity, age, family history and dietary changes. Know all about the treatment options of prostate cancer from the expert here.
Prostate Cancer: Causes, symptoms, risk factors and treatment(Unsplash)
Prostate Cancer: Causes, symptoms, risk factors and treatment(Unsplash)
Published on Jun 23, 2022 08:15 PM IST
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ByTapatrisha Das, Delhi

Prostate and Seminal vesicles are part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to make semen (Fluid that carries sperms made in testicles). Prostate cancer refers to cancer in the man’s prostate. One of the main ways of detecting any form of disease in the prostate such as benign enlargement, infection, or cancer is difficulty in passing urine. Speaking to HT Lifestyle, Dr. Prasanth Kandra, Senior Consultant Radiation Oncologist, American Oncology Institute said, “Cancer of the prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in metro cities like Delhi, Kolkata, and Pune and the third leading cause in cities like Mumbai, and Bengaluru.”

Dr Prasanth Kandra further noted down the causes, symptoms, risk factors and the treatment procedures of prostate cancer:

ALSO READ: Patients with metastatic prostate cancer live notably longer: Study


The main reason for the increase in Prostatic cancer is due to an increase in the aged population, changing lifestyles, increased awareness, and easy access to medical facilities in cities.


Prostate cancer, in the early stages, do not show any symptoms. In the later stages, these symptoms can help in detecting cancer:

1) Dull pain in the pelvic area

2) Frequent urination

3) Burning urine or weak flow

4) Blood in the urine

5) Painful ejaculation

6) Bony pains (In stage 4).

Risk factors:

Age – The risk of prostate cancer grows with age. Damage to the genetic material (DNA) of prostate cells is more likely for men over the age of 55 years, which can turn into cancer.

Ethnicity – African American men have a higher incidence compared to Hispanic and Asian men.

Family History - A man is 2 to 3 times more likely to get prostate cancer if his father, or brother had it.

Smoking - Prostatic cancer risk doubles for those who are heavy smokers. This further increases the risk of dying from prostatic cancer.

Diet – Diet, and lifestyle may affect the risk of prostatic cancer. The risk may be higher for those who consume more calories, animal fats, refined sugar, and less of fruits and vegetables. Obesity also contributes to increase in the risk of dying from prostatic cancer.


Treatment of prostate cancer involves a range of specialists such as urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. Some of the treatment options are gives below:

Surgery – Latest techniques like Robotic-Assisted, Laparoscopic which are used in many hospitals. In this process, blood loss is minimal and recovery is faster.

Radiotherapy – Advanced modalities like IMRT, VMAT, IGRT, and SBRT are used for radiation treatment where the dose is limited to targeted areas whereas surrounding normal structures can be spared.

Hormonal Treatment - This treatment is used to block or lower testosterone and other male hormones which fuel the growth of prostatic cancer.

Chemotherapy - This modality is used mainly for stage 4 prostatic cancers where drugs are given intravenously or orally to kill cancer cells.

Immunotherapy - This modality is also used for advanced Prostatic cancers where the patient’s own immune system is activated to fight against cancer cells.

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